nolanm


Hi Katie, well here it is. I apologize for the late post, once again. The ending needs to be fixed, I finished and had to walk away from it, but I will try to find some graceful ending to it. I also have put a random paragraph that I would like to tie into the essay, and if not I’m sure I could put it on the wiki. Any and all suggestions/critiques will be fantastic, thank you! (p.s. the citations are rough as well)
 

Albert Exendine: New Perceptions of Indian Achievements

                                                                   Melissa Nolan, Class of 2008

 

The early portrayals of Indian accomplishments, attributed to their “civilization” into American culture, have not been accurately depicted and have undermined their role as significant contributors to society. Literature of the time has qualified success as being well dressed, earning a respectable income and winning respect of the “white man”. These attributes were the result of integrating Indians and introducing them into a more “sophisticated” way of life through practical training and preparation for a successful future. The Carlisle Indian Industrial School was the initial step before Indians had reached an acceptable level to be admitted into higher education. One of the various Indians who went on to achieve a higher education was Albert A. Exendine, a Delaware Indian, who was a lawyer, social activist, star athlete, coach and mentor. Although his success is very much attributed to his experiences in Carlisle, his ambition and influence greatly surpassed any knowledge acquired in a classroom. The life of Albert Exendine illustrates one contribution to Indian history and redefines early perceptions of Indian potential.
Albert A. Exendine was born January 27, 1884 in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, as the son of his Cherokee father Jasper and Delaware mother Amaline. In his youth, Exendine attended a small Presbyterian school near Anadarko, Oklahoma, the Mautame Mission School. He first learned about the Carlisle Indian Industrial School (CIS) from an advertisement in his city and decided that he would like to attend. He was accepted into the school in 1899; however, for six months he had to convince his father to allow him to go. On Christmas day of the same year, Exendine and a close friend embarked on their journey to Carlisle. “Ex”, as many came to nickname him, had a successful career while at the Indian School. He took part in the Debating Society and performed in Hamlet, the school play. In 1901 he earned a spot on the football team and won national reputation, as well as setting records as a track star. Since the beginning he had began to acquire recognition, not only as an athlete, but as a strong individual. �
During his time at the CIS, Exendine gained an admirable reputation. From 1902 until 1907 he played on the Carlisle Indian School football team. He was considered one of the “greatest ends Carlisle has had” [1] and was revered as one of the many heroes that were part of the team. He was captain of the varsity football team in 1906, and in his game he was “eagerly watched and applauded.” [2] In 1906 and 1907 Exendine was chosen by Walter Camp for the All American second team. From his experience in Carlisle, he had become a very intelligent football player and a role model for his teammates. He was both a classmate and teammate to renowned football player and Olympic record breaker, Jim Thorpe.
Thorpe came to the Indian School in 1903 and was quickly integrated into the athletic programs under the guidance of “Pop” Warner. Both student athletes from Oklahoma, Exendine and Thorpe became very good friends, and “Ex” went on to become his mentor. Initially, Thorpe spent his first few years in the shadows of Exendine’s success and watched as “Ex” was recognized for his many accomplishments. However, nearing the end of Exendine’s time at the Indian School, Thorpe began to earn himself a reputation as well. In 1906 Exendine graduated from the Carlisle Indian School, however, he remained highly active working with the football team.
Exendine furthered his educational career by entering into Dickinson Law School. While completing his law degree, he worked with Pop Warner as an assistant coach at the CIS. In 1907, at the age of 23, Exendine became a strong mentor for Thorpe. “Pop” Warner’s belief in peer pressure as a motivational force for athletes and this proved to be successful in the mentor relationship between Exendine and Thorpe. “Ex” worked closely with Thorpe throughout the regular football seasons on the field as a teammate, as well as off the field as a coach after he left the Indian School. Both Exendine and “Pop” Warner could see the talent that Thorpe had in athletics, especially in football, and together they worked to create a champion.
Exendine’s love for the game of football and keen sense of strategy made him a vital asset as an assistant coach. His competitive attitude and passion for the game inspired Thorpe and, since he looked up to “Ex”, he became that much more determined to train at a high level. In the summer of 1907 Exendine worked with Warner to further the training of the athletes and prepare them for preseason. As a result, Thorpe did not participate in an outing program, and instead formed part of Warner’s athletic boys. It can definitely be said that much of Thorpe’ success is attributed to impact that Exendine had on him as a friend, teammate and coach.
Many of his past teammates also regarded him as someone who left a mark on their life. At the presentation of C’s in 1908, a celebration where football, baseball, and track athletes who won 1st place received a C for altruistic conduct in athletics, “Ex” was asked to speak. The school band was present as were various other outside speakers. The April 1909 issue of The Indian Craftsman reports “Exendine acted as a cheer leader and the students responded to his calls with strong voices each time.” [3] His commitment and enthusiasm for the game never went unnoticed. The December 1910 issue of The Red Man indicates that he took a position as head coach of the football team at Otterbein University in Ohio and “developed a splendid team”. [4] Amidst obtaining his Law Degree and  helping to coach the Carlisle team, Exendine was already becoming involved as a head coach and preparing himself for the future in a job he loved.
One of Exendine’s final encounters with Thorpe during their time at Carlisle played an essential role in Thorpe’s future. Jim Thorpe had not been academically stimulated nor motivated in school so he transitioned between various jobs. He played minor league baseball and some football but failed to make sufficient amounts of money. Upon discovering this news, Exendine communicated with Thorpe and convinced him to return to the Indian School in the fall of 1911. To truly secure his return “Ex” contacted Warner and promoted a reconnection between himself and Thorpe. As a result, Jim Thorpe returned to Carlisle in excellent physical playing condition and Warner immediately welcomed him back. He was recruited for the football team and  quickly began his preparation for the 1912 Olympic game qualifiers. This was Exendine’s final contribution to Carlisle before he became a lawyer and pursued his own coaching career.
After graduating from the Dickinson Law School, Exendine was admitted to the Bar in Oklahoma. In 1912, he and a fellow classmate, Emilio Marianelli, opened up a law practice in Anadarko. Initially the firm did not attract many clients and therefore they moved it to McAlester where it flourished. Other places where Exendine practiced law were in Pawhuska and Tulsa. As part of the memorabilia put together by his wife Grace B. Exendine, it states that he “later  utilized this legal background in the Indian Trial Organization Act and subsequent duties with the USIS including counseling, employment, and Indian agent.”[5] Although there was no further mention of the exact details of Exendine’s work as a lawyer, this information sheds light on his role as a humanitarian. Although short lived, Exendine was an Indian activist who used his knowledge of law to protect Indians from the government.
Shortly after pursuing a career as a lawyer, and assisting “Pop” Warner in Carlisle, Exendine began his coaching career at various schools. The schools ranged from Carlisle, Otterbein, Georgetown, Washington State, Occidental, Northeastern State, and Oklahoma State. After coaching at Carlisle, he became the coach at Georgetown for nine years before going to the west  coast and directing the program at Washington State. The December 1922 New York Times article reports, Exendine “turned down an offer to continue as football director”. This decision was based on a recent Faculty decision stating that “all athletic coaches shall be engaged on an all-year basis and shall be members of the faculty”. [6] Exendine was asked to join the Law Faculty, however, turned down the offer in order to continue practicing law.
Over the following two decades, Exendine took various positions as a coach and a lawyer. After coaching at Georgetown he coached the Occidental College in Los Angeles team for two years. In 1928 he was briefly at Northeastern Teachers College in Tahlequah before he coached at Ohio State University for five years. In 1934 he moved from Tahlequah to Oklahoma S. & M. at Stillwater, where he was Lynn Walforf’s assistant. In 1936 while working as a lawyer, Exendine volunteered as a coach at Anadarko High School; and then in the same year, became the head football coach at Oklahoma A & M  while also coaching and advising the young men at Riverside Indian School. The August 1943 Oklahoman discloses information about his new job as football coach of the Will Rogers Eagles. He had worked at Will Roger’s field as a civilian just after he entered the Indian service around 1935. �
At a city park dedication in honor of Jim Thorpe from Yale, Exendine was still remembered eighty-three years later. The Oklahoman recalls guests and visitors, estimated over 3,000, having arrived to recognize the great accomplishments of Jim Thorpe. Five of which who attended were his former teammates and classmates at the Carlisle Indian School. Moore, 81, recalls Thorpe remarking that Exendine was “the best player he ever saw.” [7] This was six years before Albert Exendine’s death in January of 1973.  

Sources
[1] The Red Man, Vol. 3, no. 4, December 1910, U.S. Indian School, Carlisle, PA (p. 143)
[2] The Arrow, vol. 3, no 2., Friday November 9, 1906, United States Indian School, Carlisle, PA
[3] The Indian Craftsman, April 1909, vol. 1, no.3, The Carlisle Indian Press, U.S. Indian School, Carlisle PA, (p. 48)
[4] The Red Man, Vol. 3, no. 4, December 1910, U.S. Indian School, Carlisle, PA (p. 143)
[5] Albert A. Exendine papers, The University of Tulsa, McFarlin Library, Special Collections Department, http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/collections/exendine/index.htm  Accessed November 11, 2007
[6] The New York Times, December 13, 1922, Will Leave Georgetown: Exendine declines offer to continue as football director
[7] The Oklahoman, July 30, 1967, p. 109, “Indians in Spotlight”
Bibliography
The Arrow, vol. 3, no 2., Friday November 9, 1906, United States Indian School, Carlisle, PA
The Indian Craftsman, April 1909, vol. 1, no.3, The Carlisle Indian Press, U.S. Indian School, Carlisle PA, (p. 48)
The Red Man, Vol. 3, no. 4, December 1910, U.S. Indian School, Carlisle, PA (p. 143)
The New York Times, December 13, 1922, “Will Leave Georgetown: Exendine declines offer to continue as football director”
The Oklahoman, October 13, 1936, p. 15, “Exendine is Indian Coach: Former Aggie Grid Mentor to Teach at Riverside”
The Oklahoman, August 31, 1943, p. 13, “Eagles Name Exendine As Grid Mentor”
The Oklahoman, July 30, 1967, p. 109, “Indians in Spotlight”
Marc S. Maltby. “Thorpe, Jim”; http://www.anb.org/articles/19/19-00218.html; American National Biography Online Feb. 2000. Access date: Thursday November 15, 2007
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/M/MA023.html Larry O’Dell, Oklahoma Historical Society, accessed November 17, 2007
Ancestry.com, Social Security Death Index [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Social Security Administration.
Albert A. Exendine papers, The University of Tulsa, McFarlin Library, Special Collections Department, http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/collections/exendine/index.htm  accessed November 11, 2007
Crawford, Bill. All American: The Rise and Fall of Jim Thorpe. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

***random paragraph (placement help) =)

Albert Exendine was one of many Indian students who achieved a higher degree of education. Before his time in 1896, Howard Gansworth attended the Dickinson Preparatory after CIS, later attended Princeton University and then returned to Carlisle in 1903 to become an assistant disciplinarian at the Carlisle Indian School. One of Ex’s teammates, James Johnson, was also a successful football captain and recognized athlete. In 1903 he was chosen by Walter Comp to play on the all-American football team for Northwestern. He later attended Northwestern University in 1904 where he obtained his degree as a Dentist 1907. Other students who went on to attend the Dickinson Law School like Exendine were Hastings Robertson, Ernst Robitaille, Victor Kelley and William Gardner. Gardner was also a fellow football player and they shared a similar career by becoming  involved as a coach for various football teams. A glimpse into the lives of other Indians who attended the Carlisle Indian School, like Exendine, recognizes their diverse accomplishments, and demonstrates their substantial contributions made to society.
 

  

Lizzie, just read your post, I think we could discuss the lives of two students in our paper. What I was envisioning was detailing the lives of about five students on the website, two paragraphs (if that), and then comparing two lives in depth about two graduates. It could be possible to write the whole paper on one, but we can talk about it tomorow.

I spent some more hours at the CCHS today and have hopefully filled in some gaps. From my findings and many of the articles from the Oklahoman, it is clear that Exendine is very highly respected and was a mentor to many. Sources also showed how important a role he played in the early career of Jim Thorpe. Below are a few of my new findings:

Source: The Oklahoman, July 30, 1967, p. 109, “Indians in Spotlight”
-guests and visitors, estimated 3,000, at memorial for Jim Thorpe, and five of which were his former teammates and classmates at Carlisle Indian Industrial School

-Moore, 81, recalled that Thorpe said Exendine was “the best player he ever saw”, at this time Exendine was 83, born the same year as Thorpe, and he was titled the first Indian football player to win national recognition
 

Source: Albert A. Exendine papers, The University of Tulsa, McFarlin Library, Special Collections Department, http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/collections/exendine/index.htm  accessed November 11, 2007 (unfortunately to obtain these archives I would have to wait 4-6 weeks for processing, wish I had found found his papers and memorabilia earlier)
-while completing his law degree, he worked with Pop Warner as an assistant coach at the CIS
-after attending the Dickinson Law School he practiced in McAlester, Pawhuska and Tulsa; he used his legal abilities in the Indian Trial Organization Act and other jobs such as counseling, employment, and Indian agent

Source: Crawford, Bill. All American: The Rise and Fall of Jim Thorpe. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

-spring 1907, he was hired by Warner to work as an assistant coach and to help train Thorpe
-Thorpe looked up to Exendine, and Exendine was the reason and influence for Thorpe’s return to Carlisle before the 1912 olympics

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