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Well, that’s depressing…..My outline was all pretty, but it seems that the college blog saw fit to remove all of the formating…sorry!

I pretty much ran up against a brick wall last week with my paper. I realized that even though I had a vast quantity of information, it lacked structure, and thus looked like a huge mess. What I decided to do, therefore, was to write an outline of my book. That is exactly what I have done, and with it, I now have an outline, a complete bibliography, and a historiography. All that I need now is to actually put together the significance and context stuff.  I feel confident that I can finish up this proposal shortly.

Fred Barton

Chapter breakdown-

Introduction section-

Chapter 1-

Introduction to thesis

Throughout history, wars have been fought in the name of religion. Periodically, commanders have gone so far as to claim that they themselves were divinely inspired. Muhammad, Joan de Arc, and Muhammad Abdullah al Querishi were three such leaders. Each began life very modestly and rose to power after claiming inspiration from God. There is no doubt that each of these individuals has affected history through their claims. The question is, however, weather their inspiration affected the outcomes of battles in which they took part. Did their divine inspiration affect the morale of either their own troops or those of their opponents’ to the extent to which it changed the course of battle?

Chapter 2-Explanation of why these 3 were chosen at the expense of Others.

Subsection 1-Constantine

Subsection 2-Deborah

Subsection 3-Joshua

Subsection 4-Deborah

Subsection 5-Judah Macabee

Chapter 3-Biography of Muhammad

Subsection 1-Time period/location information

Subsection 2-Early life

Subsection 3-Revelations

Subsection 4-Life after revelations

Chapter 4- Biography of Joan de Arc

Subsection 1-Time period/location information

-Special emphasis on morale of soldiers at the time

Subsection 2-Early life

Subsection 3-Life after revelations

Chapter 5-Muhammad Abdullah al Querishi

Subsection-Time period/location information

Subsection 2-Early life

Subsection 3-lead up to declaration

Section 2-Argument

Chapter 1-Muhammad

Subsection 1- battle of Badr (624)

-Muhammad’s forces

-Opponent’s forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Divine inspiration?

Subsection 2-Battle of Uhud (625)

-Muhammad’s forces

-Opponent’s forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Divine inspiration?

Subsection 3-Battle of the Ditch (627)

-Muhammad’s forces

-Opponent’s forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Divine inspiration?

Subsection 4-Taking of Medina

-Muhammad’s forces

-Opponents forces

-Capitulation

-Divine Inspiration?

Chapter 2- Joan de Arc

Subsection 1-How command was first given to her

-Original command

-Continued command after disobeying orders

-Continued command after losing at Compiegne?

Subsection 2-Tourelles

-Joan’s forces

-Opponents forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Morale of troops

Divine inspiration

Subsection 3-Jargean

-Joan’s forces

-Opponents forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Morale of troops

Divine inspiration

Subsection 4-Patay

-Joan’s forces

-Opponents forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Morale of troops

Divine inspiration

Subsection 5-Compiegne

-Joan’s forces

-Opponents forces

-Tactics

-Outcome

-Morale of troops after loss

Divine inspiration

Subsection 6-Aftermath

-Morale of her soldiers after her capture

-Morale after status as heretic

Chapter 3-Muhammad Abdullah Querishi

Muhammad is unique among these three actors in that he fought in only one battle. Thus, his section requires a different layout then the other two.

Subsection 1-in depth explanation of the Siege of the Grand Mosque

Subsection 2-Analysis of followers’ belief in Muhammad as the Mahdi

Subsection 3-Analysis of those pilgrims whom joined Muhammad

Subsection 4-Morale of soldiers during siege due to Muhammad’s actions

Subsection 5-Analysis of defenders after the Mahdi’s death.

Subsection 6-Analysis of attackers’ morale

Section 3-Conclusion

Subsection 1-Compare/contrasting all thee actors’ effects on their own troops

Subsection 2-Compare/contrast their effects on their opponents

Subsection 3-Compare/contrast their effects on their equals (allied commanders, opposing commanders, and 3rd parties)

Subsection 4-Views of their troops after their deaths.

Subsection 5-is their an effect?

First of all, I want to note that while perusing the works cited of one of my works, i stumbled across 2 mistakes. Richard Gabriel cites Muhammad at Medina and Muhammad at Mecca as author unknown. I, however, know the author. It’s Montgomery Watt. I guess he never wrote a historiography on Muhammad.

Now, here is my massive, massively rough, draft. it fairly clearly outlines everything the paper will have to be, it definitely is in need of some serious tlc though. By that what I actually mean is that I need to write complete breakdowns of each of my separate sections instead of just saying what the section would be. I do, in fact, have a pretty good idea of how I want it to look, I just have not yet gotten to putting it on paper because I spent way too much time trying to figure out format. I think once I have actually put to paper outlines of each individual section I’ll be pretty good to go, though.

Sorry for the copy paste, but in case you can’t access the attached document (I cant), here it is:

Fred Barton

Paper proposal official draft-

Focus-

Throughout history, a number of individuals have claimed a unique relationship with the divine. Some have gone so far as to lead others in to battle, calling on the aid of their Gods. Muhammad the Prophet, Mohammad Abdullah al Querishi, Joan de Arc, and Xerxes I were such commanders. By analyzing each of the following’s military exploits; their effect upon the outcome of battle with regards to their soldiers’ or their opponents’ soldiers’ effectiveness in battle will come into focus.

Muhammad the Prophet was born in 570 in the desert town of Mecca as a member of the Hashim tribe. His father had died before he was born and his mother died when he was eight. He was taken in first by his grandfather and then his uncle. He was a trader who worked for the woman Khadija whom he eventually married. He began receiving revelation from God in 610 (check date) but only revealed this to his immediate family and close friends. In 622, Muhammed and his followers moved to Yethrib (Medina) where he became leader. He stayed there until his death, even after reconquering Mecca in 630. Muhammed died of natural causes in 632. During his life, Muhammad commanded forces in four mjor battles as well as a number of minor skirmishes. The battles used for reference will be the battle of Badr (624), the battle of Uhud (625), the battle of the ditch (627), and the taking of Medina[1] (630).

Muhammad Abdullah al Querishi proclaimed himself the Mahdi[2] in 1979 during the Islamic calendar’s first day of the year 1400. He did this in the Grand Mosque in Mecca, prompting a bloody siege which lasted fifteen days and ended in over 250 dead. Abdullah, along with his brother Juhayman led over 500 (check #) men in this siege, and gained converts along the way from the trapped pilgrims. He was killed on November 24 (date is fuzzy) while attempting to pick up and lob back a grenade thrown at his forces.

Joan de Arc was born in France in 1412, and just 19 years later was tried and executed for heresy. Joan claimed visions from God proclaiming that she must recover her homeland from the English during the Hundred Years’ War. She led troops into battle in four major engagements, the battle of Tourelles, Jargean, Patay, and Compiegne. In addition to these major conflicts, she also presided over a number of minor skirmishes.

Xerxes I of Persia ruled over the Persian Empire from 485BCE to 465BCE. Unique to this collection, Xerxes was not a follower of the book, nor did he claim to be inspired by the gods. Instead, he claimed to be a god.

Significance-

Context-

Surprisingly, as far as I can tell, there is very little written on this subject to date. I have not been able to find a single book or article comparing two or more divinely inspired military commanders. There are many which compare the divinely inspired in religious terms, and many which compare various military commanders. None, however, go so far as to combine the two ideas.

The closest any book comes to this proposal is Richard Gabriel’s “Muhammad, Islam’s First Great General”. This book, which was written in 2007, analyzes Muhammad through the lens of a military historian. Gabriel focuses on the impact Muhammad had on warfare at the time, and his use of insurgent tactics. As such, his work both leaves open the analysis of Muhammad’s divine inspiration, as well as citing a number of useful sources. Gabriel works off of the premise that Muhammad’s inspiration worked to increase the morale of his own troops, but did not affect that of his opponents’. He also believes that this increase was negligible.

Kelly Devries’ “Joan of Arc and Spirituality” also avoids focusing on Joan’s divine inspiration while still noting its significance. Kelly is at heart a military historian, as can be seen by his many works concerning the tactics and weapons utilized during medieval warfare. Thus, the vast majority of his work on Joan de Arc revolves around her military exploits. He also notes on a number of occasions the effect her inspirations had on the troops under her command. This is remarkably useful for this proposal. However, like Gabriel, he makes little mention of the effect of her inspiration on those troops taking the field against her.

As far as Muhammad Abdullah, I have found very little written in English on him at all. It seems that while his takeover of the Grand Mosque may be on par with the 9/11 attacks, the west is simply not interested.

Sources-

Muhammad:

The Quran

The Suna

Gabriel, Richard. Muhammad: Islam’s First Great General”. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman. 2007.

Carlyle, Thomas. The Hero as Prophet; Mahomet: Islam. Lecture II: Heroes and Hero Worshi.. English Classic Series, no. 33. New York: Effingham Maynard & Co, 1882.

Rodinson, Maxime. Muhammad. New York: New Press, 2002.

Shoufani, Elias s. Al-Riddahand the Muslim Conquest of Arabia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Arab institute for Research and Publishing, 1973.

Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956.

Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953.

- Ohrwalder, Joseph Wingate. Ten Year’s Captivity in the Mahdi’s Camp, 1882-1892; from the Original Manuscripts of Father Joseph Ohrwalder, Late Priest of the Austrian Mission Station at Delen, in Kordofan. 7th ed. London: S. Low, Marston & Co., Ltd, 1892.

Muhammad Abdullah-

-The Siege of Mecca

-Al nadwa newspaper, December 2nd, 1979

-Okaz newspaper December 2nd, 1979 and November 30th, 1979

-Juhayman’s Rasail Juhayman al UTeybi: Qaed al Muqtahamin al Masjid al Haram bi Maca

-Juhayman’s al Fitat wa akhbar al mahdi wa Nizul assa aleyha as-salam wa ushrat as-saa

            Ya’quibi, Ahmad ibn abi Yaqub al-. Tarikh al-Ya-qubi. 2 vols. Beirut, 1960.

I am still working on gaining access to a number of interviews which Abdullah’s followers which are absolutely imperative to writing this paper. They are really going to be the meat of my argument on Abdullah’s effect on the battlefield.

Joan de Arc-

Astell, Ann. Joan of Arc and Spirituality. Palgrave Mcmillan. New York, N.Y. 2003.

Devries, Kelly. Guns and Men in Medieval Europe, 1200-1500. Burlington, VT. 2002.

Biller, Peter. The Waldenses, 1170-1530: Between a Religious Order and a Church.

Actual Paper breakdown-

The paper will have 3 distinct sections; the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The body of the paper will be further broken up into 3 smaller sections, one on each of my people.

Introduction-

Throughout history, wars have been fought in the name of religion. Periodically, commanders have gone so far as to claim that they themselves were divinely inspired. Muhammad, Joan de Arc, and Muhammad Abdullah al Querishi were three such leaders. Each began life very modestly and rose to power after claiming inspiration from God. There is no doubt that each of these individuals has affected history through their claims. The question is, however, weather their inspiration affected the outcomes of battles in which they took part. Did their divine inspiration affect the morale of either their own troops or those of their opponents’ to the extent to which it changed the course of battle?

Next will be a short section (a few pages) explaining while other notables such as Xerxes, Constantine, Joshua, Deborah, and Judah Macabee did not make the cut. It will very briefly describe whom each is, how they sort of fit, and what excluded them from the final biography.

Following this will be a brief biography of each of my three characters. These biographies will only be a few pages in length and will focus on the advent of their divine inspiration, their military exploits (in all cases the battles are after their inspiration, because none of them led troops beforehand), and their death/reaction of the community. Most importantly, however, each biography will explain that each person was, in fact, actually believed to be divinely inspired. Without proving this at the outset, the paper has no grounds whatsoever to stand on.

Meat-

The body of this paper will consist of three sections. The first will be on Muhammad, and his military exploits. I will analyze each of his battles chronologically, paying particular attention to his tactics, and factors relating to the morale of all forces involved. Due to the obvious limitation of sources, these factors will mostly be related to when units rout. It will also analyze when warring factions (tribes) chose to ally themselves with Muhammad, as well as when rival tribes would ally against him.

The second section is for Joan de Arc. Her section will focus slightly more upon the mere fact that was given command and followed. The vast majority of evidence leads one to believe that she should have neither been given command nor actually listened to by her troops. This is remarkably significant as it gives credence to the fact that somehow, she was a morale boost to her troops. It will then go on to analyze each of her battles in turn with a particular eye towards whom was actually following her and what they said to her. Joan gives a unique opening in this paper in that she joins a war at a time in which morale was at an extreme low, and her aggressive tactics coupled with her inspiration from God gave soldiers a reason to fight which simply was not there before. Her section will close with a look at her soldiers’ responses to her defeat and eventual status as heretic. This is especially interesting because it seems that they did not lose faith in her, even after she was burned.

The third section is for Muhammad Abdullah al Querishi. As Abdullah fought in only one engagement, it will look first at how he continuously proved his divine inspiration to his troops (by this I really mean the fact that he kept picking up grenades thrown at him and lobbed them back, which ended in his death as one would imagine). It will then look in depth at his troops’ perception of him throughout the siege, and weather it changed. Finally, it will look at their views on him after his death, which uniquely among the three, ended in disillusionment.

Conclusion-

The conclusion of this paper will be rather long as it has to tie all three commanders together. It will do this in three separate sections (I like #3). The first will be compare/contrasting their effects on their own troops, the second will be compare/contrasting their effects on their enemies, and the third will be views of their own troops after their deaths.


[1] While this was not an actual military confrontation, as Mecca capitulated immediately to Muhammad, there was the possibility of a fight and Muhammad did lead troops.

[2] The Mahdi is the Islamic redeemer. There is no generally accepted view of when or how the Mahdi will appear, but in most views heralds the Day of Judgment. The hadith translates literally to “The promised Mahdi would be a Caliph of God and to make a covenant with him is obligatory. He would belong to the House of Muhammad and would be in the line of Imam Hussein. His name would be Muhammad and his family name would be Abul Qasim, his father’s name would be ‘Abdu’llah, and he would appear in Medina. He would protect the Muslims from destruction and would restore the religion to its original position.”

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