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Sorry I could not get it into class today but here it is. Also, I had to re-do my entire project when I discovered my old idea had essentially been done in a book which is in our library. Anyway,

My paper is going to examine key figures in German resistance movements against the Nazi party. It is amazing that despite living in an a de facto police state, there were hundreds if not thousands of Germans who were members of secret organizations plotting the overthrow of Hitler and the Nazis, almost from the very beginning. Many of these accounts are close to being lost in the dustbin of history. The other interesting part is the variety of different types of people involved in these organizations. I have attempted to select as wide a range as possible in order to demostrate this. The only thing that they all have in common is that they were all martyred during the war. I have settled on 5 primary figures and may add one or two more before it is finished.

The significance of this exercise is that many people have written on the German resistance, but nobody has looked at it in this particular way. Nobody has written a collective biography. From the collective biography, I hope to find commonalities which can lead to some explanation of why these people were willing to pay the ultimate price for what they believed.

 The people I will be looking at are:

Claus von Stauffenberg: A colonel in the German Army who became disgusted with Hitler’s treatment of the Jews and other minorities. He was the leading figure in the famous July 20th plot, in which he concealed a bomb in his briefcase during a staff meeting with Hitler. The bomb exploded and Hitler survived only by several strokes of good (bad) luck. This was part of a plot to kill Hitler and seek a peaceful resolution to the war. The plot failed and von Stauffenberg was executed the next day.

Helmuth von Moltke: a German lawyer who was distantly related to Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, a famous general from the Franco-Prussian war. He was drafted into the German military intelligence service during the war and was able to access sensitive information regarding concentration camps and the like. He was later exectued for treason.

Sophie Scholl: along with her brother she was head of an underground resistence society known as the “White Rose.” They were students at the University of Munich where they distributed pamphlets advocating non-violent resistance to the Nazis. Eventually they were all caught and executed.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer: a German pastor and theologian who founded the Confessing Church, an underground church which resisted the Nazis. He was involved in with members of the same organization as von Moltke and Canaris. He was executed after his name was linked to members of the July 20th plot.

Wilhelm Canaris: head of the German military intelligence agency, the Abwehr. He also was working for the British for most of the war and worked secretly to free prisoners in concentration camps.

The methodology will consist of mainly of gathering information in the library. I already have a large list of books, as the Dickinson library has a fairly extensive collection on the German resistance. In addition, my family is mailing me several books from a public library near my house.

The project will be done entirely on the night before it is due.

Bibliography (preliminary):

Benz, Wolfgang and Walter H. Pehle. Encyclopedia of German Resistance to the Nazi Movement. New York: Continuum, 1997.

Bethge, Eberhard. Dietrich Bonhoeffer; Man of Vision, Man of Courage. Uniform Title: Dietrich Bonhoeffer. English. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich and Edwin Hanton Robertson. No Rusty Swords : Letters, Lectures, and Notes 1928-1936 from the Collected Works, Volume I. Fount Books; Fontana Religious. London: Collins + World, 1977.

Bosanquet, Mary. The Life and Death of Dietrich Bonhoeffer. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1968.

Crew, David F. Hitler and the Nazis : A History in Documents. Pages from History. Oxford ;; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Dumbach, Annette E., Jud Newborn, Annette E. Dumbach, and Shattering the German night. Sophie Scholl and the White Rose. Rev., expanded ed. Oxford: Oneworld Pub, 2006.

Fest, Joachim C. Plotting Hitler’s Death : The Story of the German Resistance. 1st American ed. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1996.

Fittko, Lisa. Solidarity and Treason : Resistance and Exile, 1933-1940. Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press, 1993.

Friedrich, Otto. Blood and Iron : From Bismarck to Hitler the Von Moltke Family’s Impact on German History. 1st ed. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1995.

Geyer, Michael and John W. Boyer. Resistance Against the Third Reich, 1933-1990. Studies in European History from the Journal of Modern History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Hamerow, Theodore S. On the Road to the Wolf’s Lair : German Resistance to Hitler. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997.

Hoffmann, Peter. The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945. 3rd English ed. Montreal ; Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996.

Hoffmann, Peter. Stauffenberg : A Family History, 1905-1944. Cambridge England] ;; New YorK, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Hoffmann, Peter. German Resistance to Hitler. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Kirk, Tim and Anthony McElligott. Opposing Fascism : Community, Authority, and Resistance in Europe. Cambridge, UK ;; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Kramarz, Joachim. Stauffenberg, the Architect of the Famous July 20th Conspiracy to Assassinate Hitler. Uniform Title: Claus Graf Stauffenberg. English. 1st American ed. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Large, David Clay and Goethe House New York. Contending with Hitler : Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Washington, D.C; Cambridge: German Historical Institute; Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Marlé, René. Bonhoeffer; the Man and His Work. Uniform Title: Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Témoin De Jésus-Christ Parmi Ses Frères. English. New York: Newman Press, 1968.

Michalczyk, John J. Confront! : Resistance in Nazi Germany. New York: P. Lang, 2004.

Mommsen, Hans and Angus McGeoch. Alternatives to Hitler : German Resistance Under the Third Reich. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Overy, R. J. Interrogations : The Nazi Elite in Allied Hands, 1945. New York: Viking, 2001.

Rasmussen, Larry L. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Reality and Resistance. Studies in Christian Ethics; an Original Abingdon Paperback. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1972.

Roark, Dallas M. Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Makers of the Modern Theological Mind. Waco: Tex., Word Books, 1972.

Robertson, Edwin Hanton. The Shame and the Sacrifice : The Life and Martyrdom of Dietrich Bonhoeffer. New York: Macmillan, 1988.

Scholl, Inge. Students Against Tyranny; the Resistance of the White Rose, Munich, 1942-1943. Uniform Title: Weisse Rose. English. 1st ed. ed. Middletown: Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1970.

Scholl, Inge. Students Against Tyranny; the Resistance of the White Rose, Munich, 1942-1943. Uniform Title: Weisse Rose. English. 1st ed. ed. Middletown: Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1970.

Von Klemperer, Klemens. German Resistance Against Hitler : The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945. Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1992.

Things on my project are going well and the library has a few good sources except for one problem. There is a book in the library which is very similar to my project proposal. I may need to change some of the parameters of m project to avoid doing something which has already been done.

I want to look at communist leaders, particularly in China/SE Asia in the late 20th century. So I am going to focus on Pol Pot, Ho Chi Minh, Mao, Deng Xiaoping and Kim Il-sung.

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