As I read The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas I noticed that often times through out the chapters he narrates incidents that involved others in his attempt to show the injustice and cruelty of slavery. He uses a technique in which he talks about slavery in such a way, as if he is just an spectator looking inside of a circle from the outside, rather than being part of that circle. Even though he is a slave him self, he gives deep analysis of what went on in the lives of other slaves. Like when he talks about his aunt getting severely whipped (pg 1006) because she disobeyed her master’s command. He refers to other slave’s punishments but not to his own experience with punishments. Another instance where one comes across this, is when (pg 1007) he refers to the monthly allowance of food. Frederick Douglas writes “the slaves” to tell about their monthly food and annual clothing distribution. Instead of using the word “we” indicating that he was, at some point a slave, he uses words such as “their” and “they” which help contribute to the idea that he writes as if he was an spectator. When Douglas explains that singing among slaves is not an indication of “their contentment and happiness” he once again, makes the reader feel as he is an expert in the subject but not part of it. However, I feel that his technique of writing in such a way provides the reader with a constant reminder that Douglas makes it out of this cruelty and injustice. Douglas at various instances through out the chapters provides hints for the reader, to help remind one that he has a successful ending. An example of this is when Douglas (pg 1017) mentions that going to Baltimore opened “the gate way to all his…prosperities” giving the reader relief after reading the narrative of all the horrific events that slaves had to endure.

We can see trough Bolivar’s references to the mother country, that Spanish America wants no attachments with Spain. Bolivar states that “Americans [should] defend their rights” and encourages Americans to fight against “oppression by the Spanish nation”. He holds Spain responsible for their delay in gaining independence, developing a government of their own and achieving unity. Bolivar goes on saying that America, in order to “form a free government” needs unity and a “well-organized effort”. However, even though Bolivar stresses his desire for South America’s emancipation from Spain, we also see that at the same time, he worries that South America is not ready to govern it self. “The most perfected form of republic and monarchy is beyond our capacity” wrote Bolivar which shows his lack of confidence of Americans being able to govern them selves. According to Bolivar, establishing a government in Spanish America will not be an easy task because of their deprivation of their “freedom as well as opportunity to practice their own tyranny” by Spain. Bolivar resents the Spanish nation for this; he feels that South America lacks understanding of government because they were not “allowed to manage the domestic aspects of [their] internal affairs”. Bolivar also mentions that America was forced to follow restrictions imposed by Spain, such as “prohibition against the cultivation of European crops” which contributed to their failure in establishing a unified government. For this Simon Bolivar feels Spain is their “wicked stepmother” who is “the source of all [their] suffering”.

Two points in “Query XIV: Law” by Thomas Jefferson stand out the most to me. One is Jefferson’s reference to Roman form of slavery as a way to justify slavery during his time with African slaves. Second, the way Jefferson’s writings reflect the ignorance of white man and their inability to have any sense of justice towards the African race. Jefferson implies that African slaves did not have to face conditions nearly as bad the Roman slaves did “the condition of their slaves (Roman’s) was much more deplorable than that of the blacks on the continent of America”. Jefferson mentions that unlike Romans “the blacks” are allow to have children, yet this often was for the benefit of the slaves owner who would then be able to sell the slaves’ children. Jefferson also wrote, referring to Roman slavery that “when a master was murder, all his slaves were condemned to death” and enforces the fact that in America “punishment falls on the guilty only” implying that slaves owners are just. However, he fails to mention the fact that many slaves in America were killed with intense labor, starvation and harsh punishments. All through out the “Query XIV: Laws” Thomas Jefferson makes judgments and assumptions about the African slaves, which allows us to see the ignorance of the white men. Jefferson mentions that slaves “secret less in the kidney, require[d] less sleep, more tolerant of heat” and on and on he goes making assumptions about Africans. It’s almost as if these beliefs gave the white men the ability to justify their horrible acts of enslaving African people. It gave society reassurance that what they did to slaves was acceptable because after all “the blacks” were different then them and therefore “inferior in body and mind”. According to Jefferson “the improvements of the blacks in body and in mind” is only as a result of blacks mixing with whites. We can see how unfair the white race was with “the blacks” they gave no credit and did not have any intention to do so. Jefferson said at one point that because of their color slaves should not be freed because society needs “to preserve its dignity and beauty”

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