Thomas M. Arnold
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, DICKINSON COLLEGE · CARLISLE, PA 17013
PHONE (OFFICE) 717-245-1319, (CELL) 717-448-1045 · EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
Research and Teaching Interests
Environmental biochemistry, physiological ecology, plant biology, responses of benthic marine organisms to ocean acidification, coastal eutrophication, and climate change
Current and Past Positions
Full Professor · Dickinson College · 2015
Visiting Professor · School of Biological Science, University of Queensland · 2012
Smithsonian Senior Postdoctoral Fellow · 2011
Associate Professor · Dickinson College · 2007 – 2015
Assistant Professor · Dickinson College · 2003 – 2007
Adjunct Appointment · Graduate Faculty, University of South Alabama · 2001-2009
Assistant Professor · College / University of Charleston · 2000 – 2003
Postdoctoral Fellow · Pennsylvania State University · 1999-2000
NSF Research Training Grant: Plant responses to the environment.
Focus: Plant biochemistry and secondary metabolism.
Advisor: Jack C. Schultz
Postdoctoral Research Associate · University of Delaware · 1998-9
Focus: Biochemistry of marine organisms, metabolic pathway regulation.
Advisor: Nancy M. Targett
Ph.D. Marine Biology / Biochemistry • University of Delaware • 1998
Focus: Influence of environmental change on the metabolism of algal natural products.
Comprehensive exams in biochemistry, chemical ecology, and plant ecophysiology.
Advisor: Nancy M. Targett
B.A. Biological Sciences • St. Mary’s College of Maryland • 1993
Thesis: Phenotypic variation in the polyphenolic content of the alga Lobophora variegata.
Advisors: Christopher E. Tanner, Walter I. Hatch
Recent Publications à indicates undergraduate co-author
Arnold TM, Zimmerman RC, Engelhardt KAM, Stevenson JC. (2017) 21st Century Climate Change and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in a Temperate Estuary: The Case of the Chesapeake Bay. Environmental Health and Sustainability.
Arnold TM, Zimmerman RC, Engelhardt KAM, Stevenson JC. (2016) 21st Century Climate Change and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in the Chesapeake Bay. Third Technical Synthesis Report, commissioned by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (government document publication)
Arnold TM, Freundlich Gà, Weilnau Tà, Verdi Aà, Tibbetts IR (2014) Impacts of groundwater discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the phenolic metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera capricorni, and grazing by the juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens. PLoS ONE. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0104738
Schultz JC, HM Appel, Ferrieri A, Arnold TM (2013) Flexible resource allocation during plant defense response. Invited review. Front. Plant Sci. 4:324. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00324
Witter A, Arnold TM (2013) Nature’s Medicine Cabinet: An Interdisciplinary Course Designed To Enhance Student Learning by Investigating the Ecological Roles of Natural Products. ACS Books “Teaching Bioanalytical Chemistry” Symposium Series volume “Teaching Bioanalytical Chemistry.”
Arnold TM, Appel H, and Schultz JC (2012) Is polyphenol induction simply a result of altered carbon and nitrogen accumulation? Plant Signaling & Behavior 7:11, 1-3.
Arnold TM, Mealey Cà, Leahey Hà, Miller AW, Hall-Spencer J, Milazzo M, and Maers Kà (2012) Ocean acidification and the loss of phenolic substances in marine plants. PLoS ONE. www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0035107
Appel H, Arnold TM, and Schultz J (2012) JA responses reconfigure the long-distance transport of carbon but not nitrogen in poplar. New Phytologist. 195 (2) 419–426
Arnold TM, Tanner C, Rothen Mà, Bullington Mà (2008) Wound-induced accumulations of condensed tannins in turtlegrass, Thalassia testudinum. Aquatic Botany.
Steele Là, Caldwell Mà, Boettcher A, and Arnold TM (2006) Seagrass-pathogen interactions: “psuedo-induction” of turtlegrass phenolics near wasting disease lesions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303:123-128
Arnold TM, Appel H, Patel Và, Stocum Eà, Kavalier Aà, and Schultz JC (2004) Carbohydrate translocation determines the phenolic content of Populus foliage: a test of the sink-source model of plant defense. New Phytologist 164(1) 157-164
Arnold TM, Targett NM (2003) To grow and defend: the primary and secondary roles of brown algal phlorotannins. Oikos 100 (2): 406-408
Arnold TM and Targett NM (2002) Review: Physiological basis of defense in marine macrophytes. J. Chem. Ecol. 28 (10): 1919-1934
Arnold, TM and Schultz, JC (2002) Induced sink strength as a prerequisite for tannin biosynthesis in Populus. Oecologia 130: 585-593
Arnold TM, Targett NM, Tanner CE, and Hatch WI (2001) Evidence for methyl jasmonate-induced polyphenolics in Fucus vesiculcosus. J. Phycol. 37:1026-1029
Targett NM and Arnold TM. (2001) Influence of algal secondary metabolites on marine herbivore digestion. Chapter in: Marine Chemical Ecology. 391-412 CRC Press. B. Baker and J. McClintock, Eds.
Schultz, JC and Arnold, TM. (2000) Plant multitasking. Review of Induced plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores: biochemistry, ecology, and agriculture. Eds. Agrawal, A.A., Tuzun, S., and E. Bent. Ecology 81(8) 2350
Arnold TM and Targett NM (2000) Turnover of polyphenolic chemical defenses in marine brown algae. J. Chem. Ecol. 26(6): 1393-1410
Arnold TM and Targett NM (1998) Quantifying in situ rates of phlorotannin synthesis in marine brown algae. J. Chem. Ecol. 24(3): 577-595
Targett NM and Arnold TM (1998) Review: The role of algal phlorotannins in marine plant-herbivore interactions. J. Phycol. 34(2): 195-205
Arnold TM, Tanner CE, and Hatch WI (1995) Polyphenolic concentration of Lobophora variegata as a function of nitrogen availability. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 123: 177 – 183
MiGinty M, Randell W, Ives S, and Arnold TM (1993) A Comparison of Diversity Indices in Chesapeake Bay Tributaries. MD Department of Natural Resources Press (bound report).
Funding (over $600,000 or an average of $60,000+ per year)
$5000 Workshop Member. Chesapeake Bay Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Habitat Requirements and Restoration Targets: A THIRD Technical Synthesis. EPA and Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
Smithsonian Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship. Research on ocean acidification on submerged aquatic vegetation and shellfish in estuarine ecosystems. May-September 2011.
$2,859 NASA – Dickinson College (sub-award). Development of in situ Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment (F.O.C.E.) technology: field testing of a mobile apparatus for documenting the response of benthic communities to climate change and ocean acidification. June, 2010.
$199,903 National Science Foundation – CCLI program. A natural approach to problem-based learning in the undergraduate curriculum: development of an interdisciplinary course, Chemical Analysis in Chemical Ecology. Co-PI: A. Witter, Dickinson College. June, 2010.
Travel Award, U.S. Program in Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB). Invitation and travel award to attend the 2009 Scoping Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, funded by the National Science Foundation. July, 2009.
$1,900 Dickinson College R&D Committee. Scholarly / Creative Project: Impacts of free ocean carbon enrichment on calcifying reef algae: Are reefs coming unglued? May, 2009.
$1,257 Dickinson College R&D Committee. Scholarly / Creative Project: Development of a Free-Ocean-Carbon-Enrichment (F.O.C.E.) system for studying ocean acidification and climate change. October, 2008.
$29,250 Li-COR LEEF II Environmental Education Fund. External funds for purchase of advanced gas exchange system to support a new photosynthesis research suite.
$5,600 Mellon Foundation – Central Pennsylvania Consortium. A global survey of the seagrass wasting disease. July, 2008.
$157,187 National Science Foundation – Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology Program. A multispecies comparison of induced carbohydrate and secondary metabolism. Total collaborative award >$340,000. Duration: July, 2006 – July, 2009.
$1,920 Vineyard teaching tool. Dickinson College R&D award to support to the development of a small vineyard to serve as a “living classroom”. * vineyard development on hold as facilities relocate to the new Dickinson Farm.
$2,000 Summer Visiting Scientist Award – Baruch Marine Field Laboratory, University of South Carolina. Biochemistry of induced defenses in the marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora. Duration: June-August, 2005.
$448 Dickinson College – Research and Development grant. Page charges and cover photograph for the journal New Phytologist. July, 2004.
$103,869 National Science Foundation – Biological Oceanography Program. Grant #OCE-0117313. Mechanisms of seagrass disease resistance. Team leader, total collaborative award >$320,000. Duration: October 1, 2001 – July 30, 2005.
$95,041 National Science Foundation – Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology Program. Induced sink strength and tannin biosynthesis in Populus. Team leader, total collaborative award >$320,000. Duration: November 1, 2001 – July 30, 2005.
$648 Department of Biology, College of Charleston. Survey of induced sink strength in woody plants. Duration: March 2001-November 2001.
$980 Sigma Xi · Grants in Aid of Research. 1996 & 1995, combined funding.
Selected Scientific Presentations *denotes student coauthors
Arnold TM (2014) Ocean acidification and estuaries. Invited presentation and panel discussion for Restore America’s Estuaries/Coastal Society conference, Washington D.C.
Arnold TM, Schultz J, Appel H (2014) The importance of the phloem and CHO transport in shaping plant defense responses and herbivore feeding behaviors. Invited participation in the symposium: Allocation, Stress Tolerance and Transport: How Does Phloem Physiology Impact Plant Ecology? Ecological Society of America, Sacramento CA.
Arnold TM, Tibbetts I, Neilson J (2012) Models of undergraduate research abroad: Dickinson Global Scholars program. Forum for Education Abroad annual conference, Chicago IL.
Arnold TM, Mealey C*, Leahey H*, Miller AW, Hall-Spencer J, Milazzo M, and Maers K* (2012) Ocean acidification and the loss of phenolic substances in marine plants. Benthic Ecology Meeting, Savannah, GA.
Arnold TM. (2009) The development of a free-ocean-carbon-enrichment (F.O.C.E.) system for assessing the impact of ocean acidification on benthic organisms under otherwise natural conditions. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program’s Scoping Meeting, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (invited attendee)
Arnold TM, Appel H, Schultz J, Cesanek A*, Palmeri D*, White S* (2008) Wound-induced sink strength (WISS) enhances carbon but not nitrogen import, favoring the production of carbon-based defenses in wounded poplar leaves. American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting in Merida, Mexico.
Pye M*, Arnold TM, Appel H, and Schultz J (2006) Modulators of plant invertase activities.
* won best student poster at the 2006 meeting of the Southern Section of the American Society of Plant Biologists.
Arnold, TM, Boettcher, AE, and Tanner, CE (2005) The “psuedo-induction” of seagrass phenolics: evidence against an antimicrobial response in plants infected with the wasting disease agent, Labyrinthula sp. International Society of Chemical Ecology annual meeting, Washington, D.C. (invited speaker for special session)
Arnold, TM, Appel, H, Schultz, JC. (2004) Carbohydrate translocation determines the phenolic content of Populus foliage: a test of the sink-source model of plant defense. International Society of Chemical Ecology Meeting, Ottawa, Canada.
An additional >110 conference and seminar presentations
Chemistry 490 / Biology 401 Chemical Analysis in Chemical Ecology and Nature’s Medicine Cabinet (BIOL 128)· NSF-sponsored experimental problem-based learning course.
International Global Scholar Program (program development and pilot course) · Impacts of climate change on marine communities of Moreton Bay, Australia, University of Queensland, 2012.
Other undergraduate- and graduate-level courses: Changing Ocean Ecosystems (BIOL 129), Chemical Ecology (BIOL 401), Plant Physiology (BIOL 325), Metabolic Disorders (BIOL 122), Biochemistry (BIOL 343) · Metabolism (BIOL/CHEM 342) · First-Year Seminar · Plant Physiology (BIOL 304) · Physiological Ecology (BIOL 446) · Chemical Ecology (ENT 539)
Student researchers directly supervised *denotes students with paid summer research fellowships from NSF awards, ** awarded departmental honors, 14 additional students from collaborating institutions mentored.
Niel Cooch (2000) · Genetic markers for production of brown algal polyphenolics
*Eileen Stocum (2000-2) · Ecology of induced chemical defense in Populus
*Adam Kavalier (2001-3) · Populus defenses against herbivores
Meredith Caldwell (2000-2) · Seagrass restoration and anti-pathogen responses
*Carolina Velez (2001-3) · Populus ecology & eelgrass chemical defense
*Jessica Bullington (2002-3) · Induction of chemical defenses in seagrasses
*Michelle Rothen (2002-3) · Sub-lethal effects of herbicides on eelgrass
Paul Kretzler (2003-4) · HPLC methods of phenolic analyses
Emily Rhode (2003-4) · Nutrient enrichment and seagrass phenolic metabolism
Jenna Dente (2003–4) · Enzyme biomarkers for seagrass stress
*Bethany Jillson (2004-5) · Seagrass enzyme biomarkers
*Mary Oldham (2004) · Induced chemical defenses of tobacco, Nicotiana rustica
*Jeff Heath (2004-5) · Carbohydrates and secondary metabolism of forest trees, tomato
*Matthew Pye (2004-6) · Carbohydrates and secondary metabolism of forest trees
Amanda Humer (2005) · Stress physiology of native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata
Nick Mallos (2005-present) · Isolation of antimicrobial natural products from seagrasses
Ora Beth Mika (2006-7) · Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to salicylic acid
Louis Lazar (2006) · Response of grape vine, Vitis sp., to wound hormones
Nicole Hanson (2006-7) · Regulation of β-fructosideases in plants
Kate Fiedler (2006-7) · Regulation of β-fructosideases in plants
*Adam Cesenak (2007-10) · Wound signal transduction in Arabidopsis
*Sara White (2008-10) · Plant alkaloid metabolism
*, **Davia Palmeri (2007-9) · Plant carbohydrate metabolism
Sarah Isbell (2008-9) · Lab technician, start-up of photosynthesis suite
Sarah Gold (2009-10) · Development of mini-F.O.C.E. culture system
Chris Collier (2009-10) · Ocean acidification: seagrass cultivation
*, **Chris Mealy (2010-13) · Ocean acidification: impacts on seagrass biochemistry
Kim Wilson (2010-11) · Ocean acidification: impacts on seagrass production
Kelly Maers (2010-11) · Ocean acidification: impacts on seagrass biochemistry
*Hannah Leahy (2010-12) · Ocean acidification: impacts on seagrass biochemistry
Abby Haenssler (2011) · Ocean acidification: impacts on seagrass production
JT Stoner (2011) · Ocean acidification of Severn River, Maryland (USA)
Julia Ring · Ocean acidification of Severn River, Maryland (USA)
Kendall Beals (2012-13) · Ocean acidification: impacts on seagrass herbivory
Grace Freudich (2013-14) · Impacts of Myora Springs acidification on seagrasses
Taylor Weilnau (2013-14) · Impacts of Vulcano vent acidification on seagrasses
Arielle Verdi (2013-14) · Impacts of Vulcano vent acidification on plant polyphenols
NOTE: 17 additional students mentored via the Dickinson Global Scholars pilot program.
Honors and Awards
Valley & Ridge Training Workshop · Dickinson College (2013)
Development of climate-based curricular programs, the Center for Sustainability Education
Smithsonian Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship · Smithsonian Estuarine Research Center (2011) Collaborative research using Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment Technology.
Willoughby Technology Fellows Program · Dickinson College (2008-9)
Teaching technology instruction: community learning software, spatial analysis, wikis, blogs, etc.
Best student poster award (2006, to Matt Pye)
American Society of Plant Biologists – Southern Section
Photograph selected for cover of journal New Phytologist (2004)
Corresponding research article appeared in this issue.
Acknowledgement for undergraduate research · St. Mary’s College of Maryland (2004)
Summary of research with undergraduate Kate Fritz published in the Mulberry Tree Papers.
In Praise of Teaching (for undergraduate mentoring; 2002) · College of Charleston
In recognition of initiatives promoting undergraduate research
Sam Fitz Award · University of Delaware (1999)
Awarded to the graduate student displaying great promise in academic science
Frances Severance Award · University of Delaware (1999)
In recognition of the best dissertation in the College of Marine Studies
Academic Council Award · University of Delaware (1999)
In recognition of the best dissertation in the program of Marine Biology and Biochemistry
Postdoctoral Fellowship · Pennsylvania State University (1999-2000)
Supported by a NSF research training grant on ‘plant responses to the environment’
Postdoctoral Fellowship · University of North Carolina – Wilmington (1998)
Center for Marine Science Research Fellowship in Marine Sciences (declined)
Travel Award · National Science Foundation (1998)
For travel to the NSF “50 Years of Ocean Sciences” Symposium in Washington D.C.
Student Travel Award · International Society of Chemical Ecology (1997)
Paul R. Austin Fellowship · University of Delaware (1995)
Fellowship for research excellence in the area of biochemistry
Tri Beta Biological Honors Society · St. Mary’s College Chapter (1992)
Related Work Experience
Field Biologist · Maryland Department of Natural Resources · 1993-4
Biologist / Intern · Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences · 1992
Biological Aid · United States Fish & Wildlife Service · 1991-2
Database Coordinator · Leetown National Marine Fisheries Center · 1991-2
Field / Abroad Research *denotes student involvement
Anheuser-Busch Coastal Research Center of the University of Virginia (2013, 2014)*, University of Queensland, Moreton Bay Research Station, Brisbane, Australia (2012)*, Island of Vulcano, Sicily for MedSeA program training and field research (2011)*, Smithsonian Estuarine Research Center, Edgewater Maryland, USA (2011)*, St. Mary’s College, St. Mary’s River Ocean Acidification Project (2010)*, Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Fund Marine Laboratory, Florida, USA (2009), School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, England (2007), Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Smith Island Facility (LUCE program, 2005)*, Baruch Marine Field Lab, University of South Carolina, USA (2005), Virgin Island Environmental Resource Center, St. John U.S.V.I. (2001)*, Caribbean Marine Research Center, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas (1997, 1998, 1999), Darling Marine Center, University of Maine (1996), Archie Forfar Field Station, Andros Island, Bahamas (1996)*, Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Bermuda (1995), Smithsonian Institute, Edgewater Maryland Facility (1994),Tyrell’s Bay, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (1993), Charlottesville, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (1992)
Chair of the Environmental Studies Department (2014-7)
Chair of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Program (2013-2014)
Honor thesis committees (12 Dickinson students; in Biology, Environmental Studies, etc.)
Science executive committee (2013, 2014-7)
Interim Manager of the Stafford Greenhouse Facility (2013)
Co-director for Across Borders international program for Middle East emerging young professionals, U.S. Department of State (2012)
Greenhouse design committee (2010-12)
Founding director of the Global Scholars Program for scholarship abroad (2011-2012)
Director of the Norwich Science Program, University of East Anglia & Office of Global Education (on campus representative only, 2010-2011)
Middle East Studies Panel Reviewer (2009)
All-College Strategic Planning Committee III (2009-2010)
New Faculty Orientation, panel member (2009)
Department Assessment Coordinator (2008-2011)
All College Committee for Research and Development, Chair (2009-12)
Steering committee – Center for Environmental and Sustainability Education (2008-2009)
Moodle Interactive Classroom Software, Beta tester (2008-9)
Environmental initiative, Division III working group (2008)
Environmental initiative summer study group (2007)
School for Field Studies college representative (2006-7, 2007-10)
All College Committee for Academic Program and Standards (2005-7)
Academic standards subcommittee (2005-7)
Biosafety committee (2005-2011, 2014-present), chair (2005-7, 2008-2011)
Clarke Center representative for the B&MB program (2005)
Biology department seminar coordinator (2004-2005)
New science building committee (2003)
College of Charleston
New building committee (2003-present)
M.S. Biology graduate student committees (7 total, 2000-3)
M.E.S. program graduate student committees (3 total, 2000-3)
Ph.D. graduate students committees (1, 2000)
Biology chair search committee (2002)
Biology chair search committee (2001)
Biology chair search committee (2000)
Long range planning committee (2000-2001)
Academic planning and curriculum committee (2001)
Marine biology graduate admissions committee (2001)
Science Colloquium (M.S. program), judge for student presentations (2001)
University of South Alabama
External committee member for Meg Groeker, M.S. candidate (2000-3)
External Ph.D. committee member for Latina Steele, Ph.D. candidate (2005-2010)
External evaluator for tenure application of (1) faculty member
University of Delaware
External Ph.D. committee member (Karen Pelletrau, University of Delaware: 2003-present)
President, College of Marine Studies Graduate Student Association (1995-1997)
Science Fair Judge (1996, 1997, 1999)
Societies and other external service
Chesapeake Bay SAV Technical Synthesis Working Group III via the Chesapeake Bay Implementation Grant Maryland Department of Natural Resources (2013-present), Student presentation competition judge (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2006), Elementary school (K-3) science presentations and classroom visits, Rice Elementary (2009, 2013)
Related Activities and Skills
Ocean Acidification Advanced Policy Training, COMPASS. (2014)
Science Communication Workshops, COMPASS. Ocean Acidification Principle Investigators Meeting, Washington D.C. (2013).
Global Education, QUIP best-practices certification by the Forum for Education abroad for serving as an external reviewer of college study abroad programs (2013).
Technology in the classroom, strategies for using interactive TV systems and electronic aids such as document / video cameras for remote teaching. Blackboard, WebCT, Moodle, podcasts, iMovie, Audacity, Prezi, WordPress, web site design, blogs, and wikis.
PULSE conflict mediation training 2010, 2012.
Photography, published in The Dickinsonian (2008, 2010), InFocus (2008), New Phytologist (2005), the Coast Reporter (1998) and in public displays for the University of Delaware (1998, 1999).
News coverage. The Environment in Focus with Tom Pelton (Chesapeake Bay Foundation, senior journalist), WYPR Baltimore radio (2012), Chemical and Engineering News (2012), Chesapeake Quarterly Magazine (2011), The Severna Park Voice (2011).
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, DICKINSON COLLEGE · CARLISLE, PA 17013
PHONE (OFFICE) 717-245-1319, (CELL) 717-448-1045 · EMAIL: email@example.com