Often times when we are stressed, we picture a scenario in our head in which the conflict is taking place. Perhaps we are afraid of confessing a secret to a friend and therefore need to play out all possible responses and how to address them. Or maybe we are dreading a class presentation and thus need to practice things to say and observe how they sound. An example of this subconscious response to a problem is presented in John Okada’s No-No Boy in the form of an interesting narrative style.
Ichiro Yamada, the protagonist of the novel, is plagued with feelings of anger, confusion, guilt, and hopelessness after returning to Seattle from prison. He is unsure of what to do with his life or who he truly is because as a “no-no boy”, he is constantly rejected by friends, family, and strangers alike. Tormented by these emotions, Ichiro’s thoughts burst forward onto the pages of the novel, usually in streams of consciousness or through the eyes of different characters.
In one instant of the story, Ichiro’s inner turmoil over whether or not he made the right decision to say “no” twice on the loyalty questionnaire becomes a flashback to when he had to face the judge with his reasoning. Ichiro’s perspective, however, is not the only one present in the flashback. We get to see other no-no boys give their reasons for not joining the U.S. army:
“You can’t make me go into the army because I’m not an American or you wouldn’t have plucked me and mine from a life that was good and real and meaningful and fenced me in the desert…” (Okada 30)
“If you think we’re the same kind of rotten Japanese that dropped the bombs on Pearl Harbour, and it’s plain that you do or I wouldn’t be here having to explain to you why it is that I won’t go and protect sons-of-bitches like you…” (Okada 30)
“I can’t go because my brother is in the Japanese army…” (Okada 31)
We thus see Ichiro dealing with his problems by reflecting on the past through the eyes of multiple no-no boys. Interestingly, there are no quotation marks, italics, or other forms of dialogue that are usually present in flashbacks, making this scene seem like it was all just a collection of Ichiro’s own thoughts. In fact, Okada later writes, “And then Ichiro thought to himself: My reason was all the reasons put together” (Okada 32), indicating that Okada’s unique narrative style is supposed to demonstrate how the various emotions and thoughts circling through Ichiro’s head represent the crisis that he is going through. By playing this scenario in his head, Ichiro struggles to understand who he is and to justify and cope with his reasoning.
Okada, John. No-No Boy. University of Washington Press, 2014.