December 4th, 2017 by Michaela

Rough Intro and Thesis

How loud must an oppressed group yell in order to be heard? The British government created laws that purposely mistreated the people of Ireland and the American government did not acknowledge the laws that were meant to protect African Americans. This anthology will analyze the legislation like America’s Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill and Ireland’s Home Rule Bill in relation to both the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance. While both bills failed to pass, one aspect of the legislation is that both governments were unable to provide minorities the basic rights of countrymen: the rights given alongside citizenship. The failures of both governments connect  to the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance and how multiple authors respond to those failures. However, both movements do not include every voice that wanted to be heard. During the Home Rule movement in Ireland, women were expected to fight alongside men for a form of liberation but remain in a subservient role within the established social hierarchy. When the American government failed to pass the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, African American writers were calling for more education for members of their community but members who were educated had more of a voice compared to those who were uneducated. By reading the literature from the Celtic revival in conjunction with literature from the Harlem Renaissance, a pattern of overlooked voices can be understood, both within the law but also within the literature itself.


Question: Do you think that the bills that I mention add to my claim or would you recommend that I try different legislation?


December 4th, 2017 by mooree

Introduction to Anthology of CR/HR on Folklore

I have created an anthology of literature from two separate, yet similar, ideological and literary movements during the beginning of the 20th century: the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance. While these movements occurred around the same time in history, their respective goals and strivings lead them in opposite directions. Past and present, both groups of people have faced oppression, the foundation on which they derive their creativity and identity, specifically folk identity. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Irish were under the control of the expansive British empire who revoked their uniqueness to become more homogenous with the Anglican culture. Their folk traditions came from ancient times of old Eire, a rural and picturesque land in which the identity of “The Celt” came into existence. This figure was dreamy and imaginative, in touch with nature, and mystical. The Irish’s own language, Gaelic, dominated the society, in which stories of fairytales and great Celtic heroes were told by word of mouth. In the Celtic Revival movement, hundreds of years later, nationalist sentiments emerged as these examples of folklore were revitalized and reimagined, in order glorify the past and return to the sacredness of the Irish culture in the face of complete assimilation to the English ways. In the United States however, Blacks were suppressed by the institution of slavery, creating folk traditions like the sorrow song and a dialect in which this group, who did not have access to education, communicated. Still suffering from the detrimental effects and consequences of slave practices, African American writers involved in the Harlem Renaissance reclaimed their identity as valuable workers, thinkers, and human beings, moving away from the white culture’s perceptions of who they were. Drawing on their past experiences and the contemporary discrimination, they used these roots to reinvent themselves as educated, cultured, sophisticated, and exemplary citizens of their country. In this introduction, I intend to use the literary works of these movements to show how these writers were thinking about their own folk traditions and the cultural inheritance they have been granted as a means of better understanding themselves and the political and social climate in which they live.

December 4th, 2017 by Becca Stout

Resistance to Oppression in the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance

The inclusion of literature from both the Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival in this anthology is not indicative of a sameness between these movements. The purpose of this anthology is not to say that the Celtic Revival caused the Harlem Renaissance nor is it saying that they contain similar styles of writing or even have works classified in the same literary movements or genres. However, despite how different these movements are, the inclusion of literature from both these movements is purposeful because there is a distinct similarity between them. While the resulting literature from each do not parallel each other, both movements began in response to oppression. The Celtic Revival was incited to reclaim Ireland from British imperialism, while the Harlem Renaissance sparked in response to white supremacy and the failure of the Reconstruction era to create and maintain equality de jure and de facto for African Americans. This anthology will show how, in their own ways, these movements were an act of resistance in response to political oppression.

Question: I was having a hard time figuring out how to start this paragraph. Do you have any suggestions for an intro sentence or opening idea to make it more interesting?

December 4th, 2017 by watsono

Reevaluating the Canon, Recovering the Forgotten

John Guillory’s 1995 essay “Canon” considers the process of canonization or selecting texts that are conventionally considered classics, “one aspect of a much larger history of the ways in which societies have organized and regulated practices of reading and writing (it is perhaps an illusion of our own age to believe that we are simply free to read and write whatever, whenever, and however we wish)” (239). This regulation of reading, writing, and certainly thinking has historically disadvantaged and constrained female authors – particularly because their literary education was deemed less valuable. This theory of canonization thus does not only depend on aesthetic judgments about the significance of a text but more importantly how it operates within the social practices and expectations of its society.

For both the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance, literature has long been metonymized with male, literary giants whose contributions prevail as most significant within education systems. This is not to say that women have been entirely excluded from the canon, but their voices have certainly been overshadowed. Both movements engage with female authors who assert their gendered identity in relation to their particular landscape; yet the curriculum of secondary education continues to focalize around a primarily male perspective. Therefore, this anthology intends to recover the female authors of these distinct movements of revival and renewal, whose voices were necessary and increasingly equipped with the education to defend the landscapes they were built upon through writing.  


Question: I want my anthology to focus on education…did I weave this in enough here?

December 4th, 2017 by Alexis Wiggins

Intro and Thesis

To avoid the risk of confusion that I have come to expect from others when associating the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance, I will begin this anthology by listing some of the similarities between the two. Both the Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival were movements that developed in the face of oppression. They both centered on education and the creation of a new type of art that gave identity to the people taking part in as well as the movements themselves. Questions of race and class were complicating factors in each.

While I was in the process of thinking about the pieces we had read in class for the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance and what other types of works could be included, I realized I wanted to find ones that could give a little more. Poems are beautiful and distinguished, but I’m the kind of person who is interested in people and character development and stories that give readers a peek into someone’s life, real or imaginary. Short stories have the ability to illustrate overarching and general ideas and atmospheres while at the same time focusing on the individual character and how they are effected.


Thesis: short stories from the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance provide a deeper historical understanding that shows that, though these were times of a changing status quo socially and politically, the hidden underlying institutional factors of class and race that are exposed through the narratives remained ultimately unchanged.


Question: Does my introduction seem too juvenile? Should it be written in a more sophisticated way?

December 4th, 2017 by pierrec

Final Paper Intro (Yikes!)

” I’ve always found some kind of intimacy with the Irish poets because one realized that they were also colonials with the same kind of problem that existed in the Caribbean. They were the ni***rs of Britain. Now, with all of that, to have those astounding achievements of genius, whether Joyce, or Yeats, or Beckett, illustrated that one could come out of a depressed, deprived, oppressed situation, and be defiant and creative at the same time.” – Tracy Mishkin, The Harlem and Irish Renaissances: Language, Identity, and Representation

In Tracy Michkin’s, The Harlem and Irish Renaissance: Language, Identity and Representation, she bridges the Harlem Renaissance with the Celtic Revival through the radiant authors and poets who used art to liberate the exiled voices of a community and nation. Michkin conveys a brother- and sisterhood between the Irish and the Blacks, describing both identities to be colonials and inferior in relation to the wider nation, using ni***r as a pronoun. When pondering on the genius and astounding achievements of these authors and poets who successfully showed their defiance in their art within the early 20th century, there are more names to be included; such as Hughes, Toomer, and Synge.

This anthology will explore the various art forms that authors and poets of the Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival used to convey something beyond the art form itself. When looking at Joyce’s “The Dead,” the reader becomes enthralled, entering not only the dinner party, but Gabriel’s specific perspective of it. Along with Gabriel seeing his wife as a two-dimensional painting, music sung by the host of the party fills in all the awkward spaces in conversations. Scholar Margot Norris believes that Joyce understands perfectly “that art is produced by and reproduces political ideology and social relations.” I believe this to be true as it provides a stronger thread between the two movements since the literature itself is a written history of the motives of an author or poet at the time. When dissecting the art forms within these two movements, we come into contact with the various political ideology and social relations  that in turn invokes a cohesiveness and family-hood between such parting communities. (Subject to Change!)


December 4th, 2017 by rubinb

Intro and Thesis Statement for Final Project

The Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance are two literary movements that illuminate the historical struggles of national and racial identity, as well as violent oppression stemming from dominant hegemonic systems of the time. In the Celtic Revival, writers were grappling with how to restore nationalism and Celtic tradition that had been buried through years of oppressive colonial rule by the British. In the Harlem Renaissance, African American writers navigated systematic racism by using literature, poetry, plays, and music to strengthen the collective African American conscience. While these issues of the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance are undeniably important, the patriarchal systems in place that limited women writers in both movements is also worth understanding. Women in the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance occupied multiple spheres in society because they were marginalized people as well as women. Women during these times were also expected to adhere to traditional feminine roles. In the Celtic Revival, these patriarchal restrictions acted as a barrier to having women’s voices heard in Irish Nationalist movements. In the Harlem Renaissance, African American women writers were marginalized on account of their race, but also on account of their gender. This anthology strives to illuminate literature and poetry written by women of the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance who embraced their femininity and wrote in defiance of the limiting patriarchal, racial, and colonial systems of power that they faced.

Question: How did women writers overcome gender expectations in the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance?

December 4th, 2017 by Peter

The Dyer Bill and the First Irish Home Rule Bill—A Comparison of Legislation

In order to justify the conjoined study of the Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival, I have constructed an anthology that compares two different legislations, the Dyer Bill and the First Home Rule Bill of Ireland.  There are strikingly similar histories between both of these bills: Both were intended to protect freedom and rights, both were never passed, both were aimed to aid disadvantaged social groups, and both were intended to reduce prejudice.  However, it was prejudice that precisely prevented these bills from being passed.  Given that American state laws had been insufficient at preventing lynching, the Dyer Bill aimed to make lynching illegal at the federal level.  The main reason the bill was not passed was because many politicians felt that it would invade upon the autonomy of the state.  The First Home Rule Bill would have given freedom to the Irish from Great Britain so that they could be an independent nation.   However, this was fiercely resisted primarily because, given the amount of Catholics, a free Ireland would purportedly be tantamount to “Rome Rule.”  The Dyer Bill and Home Rule Bill were resisted primarily due to racial and religious prejudice, respectively.  I intend to prove the similarities between both bills in my comparison, demonstrating transnationally the similarities between the Harlem Renaissance and Celtic Revival through the prejudice of their legislative contexts.  Further, the inclusion of literary responses within both movements will qualitatively demonstrate how prevailing authors felt about the social problems the bills sought to address.

THESIS: Similarities between the Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival can be found in their contemporary legislations, primarily through the Dyer Bill and First Irish Home Rule Bill.  Both legislatures manifested similar tactics and forms of prejudice.

QUESTION: How much can laws affect the mindset or actions of a people?  Of what power do laws have to change a zeitgeist?

December 4th, 2017 by Charlotte Hayden

Introductory paragraph and thesis statement

My comparative study of the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance concentrates on motherhood as an expression of the movements’ emphasis on national belonging, and as a site upon which to experiment with ways of belonging. Both these movements were formed with the intention of reclaiming or rediscovering national roots. Literature from these movements written by or about women featured two main themes: motherhood and sexual attraction. Why did women feel compelled to write about this, when the men wrote about activism as well as fatherhood and lust? Why do representations of mothers, whether written by men or women, conflate motherhood with sexual desire and suggest the two can only coexist in discord and disharmony? WORKING THESIS STATEMENT: A comparative study of the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance through motherhood, origin, and the sexuality motherhood necessitates helps readers understand the anxieties over national identity being explored in these movements.


QUESTION FOR PEERS: Do you see the parallel between motherhood and nationhood? Does maternity make sense as a lens for studying national belonging?

December 4th, 2017 by Alexis Wiggins

Solmaz Sharif & Appreciating Poetry

While attending “An Evening with Solmaz Sharif” last Thursday night, the thing thing I found particularly striking about Sharif was how honest she was throughout the talk and especially in the question and answer period. If someone asked her a question that she felt she didn’t have the capacity to answer at that moment she would truthfully say that she couldn’t answer it. She didn’t try to pretend to be a genius scholar. She was clearly very much herself. Sharif spoke so eloquently that I ended up using my program to write down some of the quotes that I found most impressive. Her opinion of poetry was particularly eye-opening to me because, I will admit, sometimes I have trouble appreciating poetry as much as I should. However, one of my favorite quotes from Sharif that evening has helped me to better understand poetry as an art form. She said that a poem “allows for and relies on a collapse of time.” I love the image this quote makes in my head. I picture the physical brevity of poems on a page, particularly compared to short stories and books, but also the time collapsing through the words and images of a poem. Poems can tell a story or make a social comment in a very short amount of words. Because of this they do rely on, as Sharif said, a “collapse of time.” Poems collapse the classic structure of written ideas and instead condense them into little pieces of intense language. While I still may not like them as much as I do, I now have an appreciation of poetry I did not have before.

« Previous PageNext Page »