All posts by Fiona Clarke

Education in Newspapers: Carlisle and Abroad

 Newspaper Research

courtesy of the PA Civil War Era Newspapers Collection
courtesy of the PA Civil War Era Newspapers Collection
Columbia Spy (Columbia, PA)., Saturday, July 4, 1868; Front Page: Column 7

To get a feel for using different online databases, and as a preliminary check, I ran John Franklin Goucher’s name through Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers, Accessible Archives, Civil War Era, and Historical Newspapers; all subscription based collections available through Dickinson. No results in the first three, but there was a short piece on a reception held for Goucher at the University of Southern California in the Historical Newspapers Database.

Unlike the other resources, with this one there were over a hundred results, but many of them either had no mention of Goucher, or were brought up simply because they included the names “John” or “Franklin”. A search of “Goucher” with the same date restrictions had more results, as could be expected, which meant a greatly increased number of extraneous articles, and a couple that were actually relevant to my research, like obituaries. I also ran “Goucher” through the other subscription-based sites, and had results similar to my first searches there.

This isn’t entirely unexpected; Goucher and everyone else in the Class of 1868 lived most of their adult lives after the time of the Civil War. Goucher in particular was known for his international presence, and is therefore unlikely to have been a major subject in any of the more local publications, especially those that focused on the after-effects of the war, or issues of race in post-slavery America.

“Dickinson College” had similarly lackluster results in all the aforementioned programs. It’s important to note that this is due in part to my search terms. I didn’t dedicate more than a couple hours to searches in these databases. There are many more combinations of words and places to try– I didn’t exhaust all my options in that respect by any stretch of the imagination. However, there is a point when perseverance becomes inefficient and it makes more sense to move on to other sources if they are available.

Chronicling  America was the most useful for my purposes. Simple searches of “John Franklin Goucher” and “Dickinson College” bring up the kind of specific results needed for this entry. There are obituaries, notices of departure in the social pages, and for Dickinson College, two articles explaining financial difficulties.

After these discoveries, the challenge became finding articles that offered a different or unique perspective, while also providing information. In 19th Century U.S. Newspapers, I found a paragraph on Alexander Cook Chenoweth in the gossip pages of a New Orleans publication that mentions the discovery of several ancient artifacts on his property, and his own amateur archaeological pursuits. There was very little information of substance, though, so it’s the obituary from Chronicling America that I’ve included here:

Courtesy of the Library of Congress
Courtesy of the Library of Congress (Chronicling History)
New-York tribune., April 16, 1922, Page 14: Column 6

This excerpt provides a tidy summary of A .C. Chenoweth’s life, and perhaps areas for further research– for example, records of the Croton aqueduct, or those of the various societies of which he was a member.

The partisan leanings of a newspaper are unlikely to have a huge effect on its obituary of a non-political figure, but regardless, I looked at the “New-York Tribune” description in the Chronicling History website: it was Republican-affiliated.

The only other article of interest I could find related to Chenoweth, again with 19th Century U.S. Newspapers, was one detailing his claim to a large portion of the city of Baltimoredue to what he maintained were his ancestral ties to Oliver Cromwell. All in all, he seems a rather eccentric figure.

Through Chronicling America, this time with the search “Goucher anglo-japanese college”, I located this article:

Screen Shot 2016-10-01 at 11.56.05 pm Screen Shot 2016-10-01 at 11.56.28 pm

Evening star., November 22, 1907, Page 18: Column 1

Full page here, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Chronicling America.

This piece in the Evening Star (no political affiliation, according to Chronicling America, Wikipedia, and Readex) addresses not only Goucher’s resignation as President of the college he founded, but also his various involvements in other educational institutions, his philanthropy, and his Methodist missionary work around the world. It has greater detail than the majority of obituaries I examined.

This was by no means the only article made available with these search terms; I had a hard time deciding which to include. There are multiple articles on missionary activity, including one detailing Methodist Conference allocation of funds according to country and program. Goucher is mentioned, again for his association with the Anglo-Japanese College. There is more on the College that doesn’t have to do with Goucher; many newspapers tracked the travels of the “First Japanese Bishop”, a man named Honda who made multiple visits to the U.S. for Methodist conventions and speeches on global education. He was a graduate of Aoyama Gakuin (the Anglo-Japanese College), and so appeared in many of my searches.

To track down John Franklin Goucher in foreign publications, I first tried to find a list of Methodist missionary newspapers. Yale has a very comprehensive list, but I was unable to locate links to actual PDF files of the papers, which leads me to believe many have not yet been digitized. Princeton has a digitized collection of the “Japan Mail”, an english-language paper based in Yokohama in the 19th century, that I believe might include more information on the Anglo-Japanese College and perhaps Goucher himself. Unfortunately, access is only available for Princeton students.

Lastly, there is a link that pops up in the Dickinson Database Search when one types in “Historical Newspapers”. Historical Chinese Newspapers is a resource I have yet to fully explore, but a quick search of Goucher’s name reveals that he had an obituary in the “Chinese Recorder”, a newspaper based in Shanghai:

courtesy of ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chinese Newspapers Collection
courtesy of ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chinese Newspapers Collection

Returning to Pennsylvania, I located two articles dealing with Dickinson College’s lack of an endowment in 1866. The more entertaining read is this heartfelt plea for funds from an unknown author in the “New York Methodist”:



Dickinson College Endowment
courtesy of the Library of Congress (Chronicling History)
The evening telegraph., October 19, 1866, FIFTH EDITION, Page 2: Column 3

In short, the article describes Dickinson’s position as a bastion of the Methodist faith, from its great founders to the fine young men it educates in the mid 19th century. It also details the college’s need for funds, as money is apparently so short that the faculty is only paid half of their due, and the entire institution is in danger of shutting down.

This would have been extremely relevant to the students enrolled in the college at the time. There may be exaggeration in the article, but regardless, the uncertainty of the future of the school would have had an impact, particularly on the faculty, if the account is to be believed.

Clearly the appeal worked, as Dickinson is still functioning today.

Full page here.























Additional Work

Local Carlisle newspapers from the 19th century have not yet been digitalized, so the only way to access them is through microfilm. I was able to examine the Carlisle Herald through the records of the Cumberland County Historical Society.

The Carlisle Herald was a Republican-affiliated publication during the years I focused on, 1864 to 1868 (Fralish). This partisan tilt was evident in its endorsement of Ulysses S. Grant in the first column of every second page. There was also the occasional snide comment directed towards more Democratic-leaning papers, and multiple references to “Copperheads”, a Republican term for anti-war Democrats (

courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society
courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society
courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society
courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society

It took two hours of flipping through microfilm to go backwards from August 1868 to October 1866, looking for any mention of Dickinson College or its students. In this brief span, I was unable to uncover any particularly compelling accounts of student activities. The class of 1868 appears to have been relatively well behaved.

I found an article on the death of Dickinson President Andrew Johnson and his obituary, a piece on the 1868 Commencement and all the events associated with graduation, and something about the anniversary celebrations for the Belles Lettres and Union Philosophical societies. In terms of relevance, Johnson’s death probably had the most impact on the students, but the other two articles directly mention members of the class of 1868 by name and detail the subjects about which they spoke, something that, to me, is of greater interest.

Commencement Article

Literary Societies

Page numbers were not listed anywhere on the microfilm images, so it was impossible to note on which page these articles were, however, I did note the dates: the literary society article was in the Friday, December 24, 1866 edition, and the Commencement in the Friday, June 26, 1868. Neither are on the title page. They fall under the “Town and County” section of the news.

There was no author listed for either.

As a final note, I discovered something interesting in the microfilm. There are a surprising number of international topics mentioned in the Carlisle Herald for a small-town Pennsylvania publication.

There were stories on the excavations at Pompeii, articles titled “Japanese Men and Women”, “Exploration of the Nile Tributaries”, “An Eastern Romance” (this supposedly taking place in Cairo), “An immense gold-field has been discovered in Peru”, “Burning Widows” in “Jhallowar, Rajpoutara” and the “Exposition Universelle” in Paris, just to name a few.  This seems an excellent topic for later exploration: the way young Americans in 1868 perceived the world, and how they were influenced by the publications of the time.


“Mid-19th Century Cumberland County Newspapers”, John C. Fralish, In the collections of the Cumberland County Historical Society.

Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers (through Dickinson College subscription)

Accessible Archives (through Dickinson College subscription)

Civil War Era (through Dickinson College subscription)

Historical Newspapers (through Dickinson College subscription)

PA Civil War Era Newspapers Collection (Penn State)

Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Historical Chinese Newspapers (through Dickinson College subscription)

Cartes de visite of the Dickinson Class of 1868

Ten Members of the Dickinson Class of 1868


This is a series of eleven black and white/sepia photographs, in the form of cartes de visite. They were created by three “photograph galleries”; C.L. Lochman’s, Mrs. R.A. Smith, and Le Rue Lemer, the first two based in Carlisle, the last in Harrisburg. The date the actual photographs were taken is not listed on their backings, but there are notes and signatures scrawled there—five are dated June 25th, 1868. One is June 19th the same year. Others simply list 1868, or nothing at all.

Based on the personal notes, these were meant to be exchanged between classmates at graduation. They might simply have been taken for the graduates, but friends ended up using them as tradable keepsakes anyway. Their purpose seems commemorative, especially as photographs, while not rare, were still a relatively new technology in 1868.

The items are in stable condition. The photographs are focused and easily distinguishable. They have yellowed slightly with age, but it it entirely possible that the discoloration was there from when they were first developed. The maker’s stamp is clearly legible, as is most of the writing on the backs. If it isn’t, the issue is with the handwriting, not the quality of the ink or paper.

There were thirteen total graduates in the class of 1868, which matches the number on the composite card. This means three photographs are missing, assuming the receiver kept their own portrait, as well. The three missing members according to the Dickinson Alumni Record are Harry Leader Bowman (lower left next to Goucher and Westy), Jesse Bowman Young (upper right below G.D. Chenoweth) and Philip Matthew Lewis (right of Smead).

When I ran “1868” through the Dickinson Archives and Special Collections website, I found this: mtc_0065

This carte is evidence that multiple copies of each portrait were made and distributed. It is also helpful in identifying the photos of the missing members.

Number 9 is listed as B. L. Beck, not Philip Matthew Lewis, the only other member besides Bowman and Young unaccounted for according to the Dickinson Alumni Record. Number 10 is undoubtably Bowman, as I found his portrait in the archives.

Harry Leader Bowman
Harry Leader Bowman

There is no “Beck” in the Alumni record under graduates or non-graduates. There are no comparable names, either. The closest is a non-grad listed as F. W. Biddle, but his other initials rule him out. While it makes sense for Jesse Bowman Young to be number 5, I could only find a picture that doesn’t bear much of a resemblance to the one on the composite carte de visite.

There are no other photographs available online for Philip Matthew Lewis or B. L. Beck, so I cannot confirm if their particular portrait is correctly or incorrectly identified on the card. I will make a visit to the physical archives on Monday afternoon to see if I can dig up more photographic evidence.

While researching the Chenoweth brothers for another post, I found a list of the class of 1868. Thirteen people were mentioned, but instead of a Philip Matthew Lewis or a B. L. Beck, there was a Thomas Woodward Ahl.

Screen Shot 2016-09-24 at 11.12.09 pm

When I started writing this post, my question was about the recipient of these particular cartes de visite. I found the answer to that quickly enough, as it was written on the back of the composite card.

Composite Card (reverse)
Composite Card (reverse)

“Compliments, H. L. Bowman”

Harry Leader Bowman fits; he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi, the fraternity referenced in Henry Jacob Beatty’s carte de visite.

Now, the more pressing issue is that of the man in portrait nine. He has a different name listed in three separate sources. When I visit the archives on Monday, I will try to find more about him, but that search will have to continue in another post.

Portrait Nine

Citation of cartes de visite:

Screen Shot 2016-09-25 at 4.31.34 pm


The Chenoweth Brothers

Cartes de visite of Dickinson Class of 1868 Graduates:

A full description can be found here.

A Note On Drop Files And J.F. Goucher:

John Franklin Goucher is arguably the most famous member of the graduating class of 1868, so there is a decent amount of material relating to him in the Dickinson Archives. A quick search in the Archives website brings up some of the more notable artifacts, including a fraternity pin and a transcribed speech at a conference on Christianity in the U.S. The actual archives, however, can be daunting; when I first arrived, I was too intimidated to make use of many of its resources and instead asked one of the archivists for any information she could bring on him.

This led me to the drop file on Goucher; a catch-all collection of documents deemed not important enough to warrant their own entries. These include three newspaper obituaries, most with a heavy focus on Goucher’s career as founder and president of the college named for him, several handwritten notes addressed to Mrs. Goucher expressing condolences for his death, and a biography written by a Goucher College student who graduated in 1931.

In hindsight, John Franklin Goucher’s position as head of another college means that there is another institution with an equal or greater claim to many of his personal effects and correspondence, something that undoubtably affects the Dickinson Archives collection on him and his wife, dependent as that collection is on the whims of Goucher’s descendants or others in the chain of custody.

Also, drop files, while sometimes containing overlooked scraps that hold the key to future research– the letters to Mrs. Goucher, for example– are equally as likely to have nothing but passing mentions of a figure, or vague, general information one could more easily gather from an entry in the Dickinson Encyclopedia or an Alumni Record. Therefore I cannot recommend them as a starting point for archival research nor as a viable means of reaching information on a specific topic. More reliable methods are listed below.

The Chenoweth Brothers

The card catalog

Two other members of the class had unusual careers, according to the Dickinson College Alumni Record: George Durbin Chenoweth, and his brother, Alexander Crawford Chenoweth. Both were engineers. Alexander was at one point employed by a Peruvian general, and George worked for the Northern Pacific Railroad extensively. I started my search for documents on these two with the main card catalog in the Archives–a filing cabinet of sorts, alphabetically organized with the names of people and some of the artifacts concerning them. There are entries for George Davenport Chenoweth, the father of the two, and George Durbin, but none for Alexander. I asked Frank, the archival assistant, for the contents of George’s card.

Documents found using the card catalog

There is some documentation of George’s time with the Railroad through  various certificates, as well as a pamphlet from his campaign for congressman as a member of the Progressive Party. There is also an entire file dedicated to his correspondence as a member of the Dickinson Board of Trustees, with notes explaining various absences and his resignation due to health issues.

After sifting through these for about 30 minutes, I decided to return to the mystery of Alexander Crawford Chenoweth. He had no entry in the card catalog, and there was no drop file on him, either. I enlisted the help of Frank again, but he could find nothing on Alexander in the collections. He did bring me a book with a list of the graduates of 1868: Screen Shot 2016-09-24 at 11.12.09 pm

Wherein I discovered that Alexander Crawford was actually Alexander Cook.

This discovery didn’t turn up any new information on Alexander, even when I ran the name change through both a general and collections search. There isn’t any finding aid for documents relating to “Chenoweth”. He doesn’t even appear in the Image Archives, save for his carte de visite. I did find him and his brother in a list of Honorary Degree Recipients– Alexander received an Honorary Doctor of Laws in 1908, and George a Doctor of Science the same year. This list is easily accessible online, though many of the documents I encountered during my research are not.

These photographs of George can only be seen in the physical archives.

In terms of important, “teachable” papers, the most time-efficient source is a quick document search on the Dickinson Archive Website. This will provide any documents the archivists found compelling enough to prioritize through digitization, if they haven’t been somehow overlooked. This is how I found the letter transcribed below.

The main card catalog is useful for locating documents on people that might not be available on the website, but entries are limited. Finding aids can vary in helpfulness and detail. While I was looking for information on Alexander Cook Chenoweth, I tried tracking him down through the records of the Belles Lettres Society, of which he was a member. In a series of white binders located on a shelf in the Archives, there are brief descriptions of documents concerning Dickinson’s various societies through the years, including Greek life. Unfortunately, not every year of records is preserved, so there are gaps in lists of information available.

Finding aids can be found online. This search tool on the Dickinson Archives Website, under “Guides to Resources” is a way to locate them. Screen Shot 2016-09-25 at 12.22.59 am

The search “grades” brings up the finding aid for Student Affairs/Registrar papers, 1783-1914, or RG 5/1, where one can find documents on grades, deportment, and multiple other categories of student life at the college.

Document Identification

letterI-Original-1863-4_1 (1) (dragged) 1

Lewistown PA

July 15th 1863

                   Prof Marshal W.S.G

                             Dear Sir

                                        Your last was duly read. I write from Lewistown as myself & family have been boarding here at Paleasy hotel for some three weeks. We were driven out of Carlisle by the rebels. We left on Thursday night at 9:00, the last train that left the place before the rebels entered. We gathered up our trunks only, left everything else; & when I returned I found all perfectly safe just as we left it, for which we are thankful. The rebels entered Carlisle in strong force, twelve thousand, on Saturday evening. They put their tent near the door of Dr. Johnson & the campus filled with men & tents. Officers sent in to Mrs. Johnson for their supper, she sent it to them. Next morning they sent for breakfast, but she declined. They then used the outer cookingstove & as her servants had run off, she made their servants cook for her. They placed a strict guard around their men, to prevent deserters & keep them from plundering. But early on Sat. morning, they detailed Officers and men to plunder & they were thieving all day on Sat, Ham, groceries & dry goods, shoes, etc. While Mr. Hollert was dying on one side end of his house they were robbing him and the others. Rob Moore had a few army shoes hid, some rebel sympathizers told them of the fact & they searched the house, then took him prisoner & forced a confession from him where the shoes were and took them. They had no respect to private property if it suited them. They received information on Monday morning, that the army of the Potomac had made an attack near Gettysburg. They left speedily. Then some four thousand militia from Harrisburg marched into Carlisle , on Tuesday morning of 6 Ocl in the evening just as they attacked their armies in the public square, the rebel army having planted their cannon in the road near Mr. Calvers, commenced shelling the town. This was then flying artillery after throwing a few shells they sent up a flag of truce to General Smith, to surrender the town, he refused; Judge Graham tried to get them to surrender, they commenced the battle & shelled the town until three Ocl in the morning when they left. They burned the Barracks and Gasshouse. One shell struck Dr. Henson’s house in front but did very little injury. One exploded in Dr. Johnson’s reading room doing very little damage, he was standing just outside in the hall. The family then went to the cellar & spent the night, where most of the town took refuge. It was an awful night.

This is a letter written by George Davenport Chenoweth, the father of Alexander Cook and George Durbin Chenoweth of the Dickinson Class of 1868, in 1863, the year before the two began their study at the college. It was addressed to a Professor Marshall, presumably a member of the Dickinson faculty.

The document seems primarily intended to inform its recipient of the goings-on in Carlisle at the time.

The letter is fragile, written on delicate paper that is clearly aged, and needs to be protected with a plastic covering. However, the writing is clearly legible, and the entire letter is intact. It is original, or at least highly unlikely to be a copy.

One can glean a lot of information from this item; it is most effective in conveying the events that conspired during the Confederate invasion of Carlisle, from the reaction of the town’s inhabitants, to the behavior and number of soldiers. It also provides an account of the effect the Civil War had on the Dickinson campus itself; men were camped here, and the commencement of 1863 was pushed forward so as to avoid their battle. There is also a brief mention of the battle at Gettysburg.

The letter raises questions of who exactly the sender and recipient were– it appears as though both had very close ties to the college. It would also be worth looking for photographs taken of Carlisle around this time, in order to see the aftermath of the mortars and gunfire, and if there was any significant destruction. Further accounts of the rebel occupation would be interesting as well, in terms of understanding more about the interactions between an army and the citizens of a small Pennsylvania town. There is talk of sympathizers, so the relationship might be more complicated than simple enmity.

Other items of interest would be letters from the Class of 1863 concerning how their graduation was effected, the letters or accounts of the Dickinson faculty in 1863, or any correspondence or diaries from younger people at the time of the war. The Dickinson Archives can be searched for mention of a Professor Marshal or George Davenport Chenoweth.


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Five Physicians, Dead Ends, and John Franklin Goucher


courtesy of the Dickinson Archives
Graduates, Dickinson College Class of 1868

An overview of Dickinson Class of 1868:

  • 30 students total
  • 13 graduates, 17 non-graduates
  • 24/30 were involved in campus societies or greek life
  • 19 in fraternities
  • 13 in Belles Lettres Society
  • in Union Philosophical Society

Place of Origin:

  • Maryland: 11
  • Pennsylvania: 6
  • Delaware: 3
  • Washington D.C.: 2
  • New Jersey: 1
  • England: 1

Despite the relatively small size of the class, there was a wide range of careers listed in the Alumni Record, making categorization difficult. I tried to organize them under broad areas, e.g. Education, Medicine, Law, Politics, Religion, etc. But again, because of the wide variety, this method wasn’t practical:

  • educators
  • physicians (5 of whom were non-graduates)
  • lawyers
  • clergymen
  • with military affiliations
  • politicians
  • engineers
  • merchants/manufacturers
  • journalists
  • railroad officials

students were listed as having more than one occupation in the Dickinson Alumni Record of 1905, so there is some overlap in the above list. There were also student entries without any information.

Other Reference:

There were two graduates I was first interested in researching further: Alexander Crawford Chenoweth and John Franklin Goucher. These two had some of the longest descriptions in the Alumni Record, and had interesting international connections. However, after finishing my data overview, I was struck by the number of non-graduates who went on to become physicians. These were Benjamin Reid Davidson, James Edward Gibbons, Albertus A. Miller, John Cook Rives, and Charles Richey Winterson.

I ran Davidson, Gibbons, Miller, Rives, and Winterson through Wikipedia, American National Biography Online, and the Dickinson Encyclopedia, on the off chance that they might appear there, despite being relatively unknown/unaccomplished. There was a Wikipedia hit for a James Gibbons, but he was a cardinal and the archbishop of Baltimore. When I moved on to look for county histories and records of physicians in each of their respective townships in the 19th century, I encountered a number of biographies on His Eminence, but no reference sources on any of the Dickinson non-graduates.

There are no reference sources on them through Google Books, either. A search of their respective county histories yielded nothing. I did find a History of Montgomery County, PA, birthplace of James Gibbons, that was published in 1884, but the James Gibbons listed therein served as part of the 103rd Pennsylvania Regiment, a group of volunteer soldiers that was active starting in 1862. He was mustered on October 12, 1864, when James Gibbons of the Class of 1868 entered Dickinson.

Though I was unable to find any information on Gibbons, this particular county history is a good example of a source that could be seen as blurring the lines between the primary and reference genres. I considered it a reference because it is one in the sense that it’s offering a very compact record of the happenings in a certain area over a century. In the words of its author,

The ‘History of Montgomery County’ is presented to the public as a memorial of the first century of its corporate existence. Material facts have been diligently sought after and patient labor cheerfully bestowed upon the work. Events are chronicled in narrative rather than in controversial form, and truth, gleaned from a thousand sources, has been condensed in order to make it a valuable work of reference for the present and future generations.

The History, though it serves as a sort of encyclopedia, also dates to a time when 4 of the 5 physicians I was looking for were still alive. However, I think it is distant enough from the early careers of these men–almost 20 years removed–to disqualify it as an excellent primary source.

In closing this miniature historical inquiry, I would stress that my systematic research on Benjamin Reid Davidson, James Edward Gibbons, Albertus A. Miller, John Cook Rives, and Charles Richey Winterson was both rather rudimentary and extremely time consuming. It took approximately 6 hours just to find that there was no information to be found in any of the more popular channels, like the databases listed by Professor Pinsker, nor in a search for county histories. In the interest of time, and due to my own frustration with the dead ends, I elected to put my research on hold in favor of looking at more promising figures from the class. I may return to the physicians in the future, with a more efficient method. John Franklin Goucher

John Franklin Goucher
John Franklin Goucher, 1901

I began my study of Goucher through, primarily with the census records available there, but also through Immigration and Travel Records– Passport applications and the like, because I knew from the Dickinson Alumni reference source that he often travelled internationally.

The earliest census in which Goucher appears is the year 1850, when he was 5:

At the time, he was living with his mother, father, and 3 older siblings. John Goucher, the head of the family, was a physician, and three years older than his wife, Eleanor (spelled “Elenor” by the census-taker).

After this, John F. Goucher disappears from census records until 1900, according to Even allowing for name misspellings, no families with a close number of members and similar names appear in Pennsylvania, or elsewhere in the U.S. He would have been around 15 at the time of the next census, in 1860. His family stayed in the Pittsburgh area, because that’s where he is listed as going to high school in the Alumni source.

Goucher entered Dickinson in 1864, earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1868, a Master of Arts in 1872, a Doctor of Divinity in 1885, and Doctor of Law in 1899. If he was in school during all the years when the census was taken up until 1900, that would be the most probable cause for his absence from the records. More research would have to be done into the standard living situation of a graduate student in the latter half of the 19th century– dorms might not have counted as households.

It’s also entirely possible that Goucher was traveling abroad in Japan during a couple of the censuses.

Regardless, in 1900 Goucher resurfaces on the United States Federal Census, this time with a wife and three daughters, as well as a boarder named Mary McCauley, and a black servant, recorded as Nellie Kemp.

1900 U.S. Census
The Goucher Household
The Goucher Household

A 20 minute search in showed that Nellie Kemp doesn’t appear in any other census records. From this one, I know her family was from Virginia, and she was 20 in 1900.

Mary McCauley, on the other hand, was a 47 year-old widowed woman. She had one child, who was no longer alive in 1900. There is information on multiple Mary McCauleys, or variations of that name, available on ancestry, though many of these appear to be from Germany, not Maryland.

I would like to return to these two women in the future, perhaps in another post.


American National Biography Online


Dickinson College Archives

Dickinson Alumni Record