A springtime scandal for the new Mayor

Stupidity”

“Mayor Anthony has at last done a stupid thing”

Stupidity

This article from the Oskaloosa Independent demonstrates how Daniel Anthony faced many of the same tensions and challenges that plagued wartime governments both North and South. Future posts will pay specific attention to the Independent, a paper which supported Anthony’s election as Mayor, but would completely reverse course by the time his one year term was up, becoming a strong critic. (Courtesy, Chronicling America, www.chroniclingamerica.loc.gov)

 

So read the headline and opening sentence of a brief, but sensational story in the Oskaloosa Independent on May 23, 1863. (left) The source of their anger on this spring Saturday was the May 12th arrest of Leavenworth Dailey Times editor D.H. Bailey by Mayor Anthony. On that day, Anthony sent a police officer to Bailey’s home. The editor was requested to appear at the Mayor’s office, where he first learned of the case Anthony had sprung against him. The charge was that Bailey, as editor, was responsible for “disturbing the peace” when his newspaper published a story criticizing General Joseph Hooker, commander of the Army of the Potomac, for his performance during the Battle of Chancellorsville. (Leavenworth Daily Times, September 26, 1863) It was later reported in the Daily Times that Anthony wished to make an example of Bailey, and that he desired to eliminate all criticism of Union army officers. For those who were apprehensive about his election as Mayor, this must have been their worst fears realized. For one, Hooker was being lambasted across the country for his performance as commander of the Union’s main army. Chancellorsville, fought from April

General Joseph Hooker, also known as “Fightin Joe,” was criticized across the Union for his performance at Chancellorsville. Such criticism was deemed intolerable by D.R. Anthony, thus leading to Anthony’s most notorious action since the end of his military service. (Image courtesy, House Divided Project)

30 – May 6,  was an unmitigated disaster for the Union. Hooker, an otherwise capable general, was out-fought, out-thought and out-maneuvered by Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, and he would be replaced as commander by George Meade just 2 months later.

According to the Independent, Bailey was also a Quaker, and thus, probably, a pacifist. Quakers were put in an awkward position both before and during the Civil War; “The proper means and ends of emancipation nagged at the conscience” of American Quakers “before  – as well as during – the Civil War.” (Ryan, “Dilemma of Quaker Pacifism”, 5) Anthony’s father was a Quaker, a system of belief he did not enforce upon his son. However, in this instance, one might have expected a little more tolerance from the younger Anthony, who likely met William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass as a young man.

Whatever the role of religion and pacifism, Anthony’s actions were universally denounced as infringing on freedom of speech and freedom of the press. The Emporia News declared “the conduct of the Mayor has been very tyrannical.” Anthony assessed Bailey a fine of $20. When he refused to pay Bailey was jailed for a brief time – just a few hours – before being released on a writ of habeas corpus.

Anthony was not the first individual in a position of Governance during the Civil War to infringe upon free speech or freedom of the press, nor would he be the last. Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus on more than one occasion, and New York Herald war correspondent Thomas W. Knox was charged with espionage for publishing information from the Vicksburg campaign, and for being acutely critical of General William Tecumseh Sherman. The Civil War placed new and unique burdens on all levels of government. Faced with these challenges in the bitterly divided Kansas-Missouri area, Anthony chose to govern the same way he did everything else in his life – act first and ask questions later. This was also his first serious transgression as mayor, something his critics clearly felt was inevitable. D.H. Bailey would ultimately countersue Anthony for unlawfully imprisoning him, and this issue would continue to dog him into the summer and fall, even has he faced other challenges as a wartime Mayor.

Sources

Jordan, Ryan. “The Dilemma of Quaker Pacifism in a Slaveholding Republic, 1833-1865.” Civil War History 53, no. 1 (2007).

Image of General Joseph Hooker courtesy of House Divided Project

Newspaper articles courtesy Chronicling America (www.chroniclingamerica.loc.gov) and Kansas Newspapers (www.kansasnewspapers.org) 

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Anthony is elected Mayor – reactions are mixed

This blog has thus far been devoted to Daniel Anthony’s experience as a military man and as a journalist. The next few posts will be devoted to covering another of his accomplishments – his first term as Mayor of Leavenworth. When Anthony was elected in April, 1863, less than a year had passed since the events of the summer of ’62 that resulted in Brigade Order 26 and his resignation from the Army. Anthony has gained fame and notoriety for his wartime service and his unwavering (some would say radical) support for the Union cause, a cause now more closely identified with the eradication of slavery since the delivery of the Emancipation Proclamation (January 1st, 1863). One could imagine Anthony feeling a mixture of vindication, and disappointment. Vindication that he had been on the right side of history with Brigade Order 26, and disappointment that he had not had the full force of Government policy to wield against slaveholding southerners. Bear in mind that the Emancipation Proclamation abolished slavery only in those States that were in rebellion. Slaveholding states, such as Kentucky, that remained nominally loyal to the Union were not included.

In April of 1863 Daniel Anthony became a wartime mayor of a frontier town in one of the most ideologically and militarily divided regions of the country. On April 11, The Smokey Hill and Republican Union, of Junction City, Kansas, declared the margin of 744 votes to be “the largest ever given” and Anthony’s election to be “in accordance with our hopes and expectations.” The Smokey Hill joined other papers in declaring that under Anthony’s leadership, Leavenworth would keep a stiff upper lip in the fight against the south, and that he would sort out the chaotic frontier town. The Leavenworth Conservative, a paper Anthony had once been publisher of, claimed he would make it “the most orderly city in the west”, and the Big Blue Union hoped “Leavenworth will be a hot [in the negative sense] place for copperheads and blacklegs while under his rule.” The term “Copperhead” was slang for a Northern Democrat who favored peace with the South and an end to the war, thus allowing the dissolution of the Union.

To those familiar with his past, Anthony’s election must have been worrying. He favored a very militant flavor of abolitionism and Unionism. The Oskaloosa Independent, a weekly newspaper published in Oskaloosa, Kansas, would follow Anthony very closely throughout his Mayoral career. Following the election, it ran a long article that reads, in part, “Colonel Anthony has a large number of personal friends and many bitter enemies. His enemies generally accuse him of being rash and headstrong; and some of his friends are fearful that he is not the man for the place…he is charged with favoring a certain class of lawlessness and of shielding a particular set of thieves.” (Oskaloosa Independent, April 11, 1863) The article ends on a hopeful note, declaring that Anthony can set an example for the entire state to follow by being impartial and cleaning up the down. In doing so, he could also silence his critics. The Independent probably should have known that silencing his critics was not high on Anthony’s to-do list.

(Newspaper articles courtesy of Chronicling America, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/)

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About the Author

I undertook this website as an independent study during the spring semester of my Senior year at Dickinson College. I firss developed an interest in Daniel Read Anthony in the summer of 2011 as an intern at the Susan B. Anthony Birthplace Museum in Adams, MA. This website is meant to give D.R. Anthony a greater profile in American History than he has had to this point. He was an exceptional man, and it has been my privilege to study him.

I have been involved in blogging since the spring of 2011 and hope to continue that after graduation. I believe that Web 2.0 tools are the future for institutions in the field of Public History such as museums and historical societies.

I am a May 2012 graduate of Dickinson College with a B.A. in American History. My primary interests are American Frontier history, Automotive history, and American architectural history. Besides this work, I also wrote my senior thesis on the cultural history of high-performance auto advertising in America between 1964 and 1972.

Thank you for visiting. I hope you have found D.R. Anthony’s story as compelling as I do.

Sincerely, Taylor Bye

taylorcbye@yahoo.com

Dickinson College, ’12

 

 

 

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Restrictions and Copyrights

This website was produced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License . All original text and images may be used in accordance with the License. For more see “How to cite these pages.” Images used on this website from public domain sources including the House Divided Project of Dickinson College, Kansas Memory Project, Wikipedia, Wikimedia, Library of Congress, Gutenberg.org, and any other public domain sources not mentioned herein may be used with credit given to the original source. Images from the Susan B. Anthony Birthplace Museum and Kansas State Historical Society which are not in the Public Domain are used in this work under the fair use principle and are not the property of the Author. They remain property of their respective owners and may not be copied or borrowed from this website. All non-original text cited in this work from published print sources is the property of its original author and must be cited as such according to accepted standards. When in doubt, cite it anyway or look it up!

Creative Commons License

Taylor Bye, 2012

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How to cite these pages

The following sample citations are in the Chicago and MLA format. For alternative methods of citation such as APA, Turabian, or any proprietary citation formats, consult their manuals. For information on licensing of images and text see “Restrictions and Copyrights.” When in doubt, look it up!

Citing the entire site in a Bibliography or Works Cited

Chicago:

Bye, Taylor. Daniel Anthony of Kansas: D.R. Anthony, Brother of Susan B. Anthony: His Life 

and Times(blog). http://blogs.dickinson.edu/hist-bye/.

MLA:

Bye, Taylor. Daniel Anthony of Kansas: D.R. Anthony, Brother of Susan B. Anthony: His Life 

and Times. 2012. Web. <http://blogs.dickinson.edu/hist-bye/>.

 

Citing an individual page or entry

Chicago:

Bye, Taylor.”1862 Circle of Life as an Army Officer.”Daniel Anthony of Kansas: D.R. Anthony 

Brother of Susan B. Anthony: His Life and Times, April 23,2012.

1862: Circle of Life as an Army Officer

MLA:

Bye, Taylor. “1862: Circle of Life as an Army Officer.”Daniel Anthony of Kansas: D.R.

Anthony, Brother of Susan B. Anthony: His Life and Times.N.p., 23 Apr 2012. Web.

<http://blogs.dickinson.edu/hist-bye/>.

 

 

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1886: A Historically Conscious Journalist

Coverage of the Quarter Century celebrations by the Atchison Daily Globe

In 1886, D.R. Anthony and his fellow Kansan’s celebrated the 25th Anniversary of their state’s admittance to the Union, an incident D.R. Anthony had been intimately involved in. From far and wide, Kansan’s of all stripes gathered to the state capital of Topeka to take part in the celebrations, scheduled for the afternoon and evening of January 29th. As President of the recently (1875) founded Kansas State Historical Society, D.R. Anthony occupied a central role in the proceedings. According to its own website, the KSHS was founded by an association of  Kansas journalists, publishers, and editors, Anthony among them. Never one to miss an opportunity, he became a life-member, and in 1886 was serving as president. The event was closely covered by other newspapers however, including the Atchison based Daily Globe and Daily Champion. According to both, Anthony “was to “preside during the evening” while other speakers, including D.W. Wilder, gave speeches. Wilder’s speech, incidentally, was titled “The

D.W. Wilder

Press of Kansas” and was quoted in full (or nearly in full) by the Atchison Daily Champion. In his speech, Wilder extolled the virtues of the American press, namely its being “the freest, the most self-reliant, the most loyal to home…in the world,” and that Kansas papers represented the best of all American papers. Like his Massachusetts-born friend and colleague, Wilder did not know the meaning of modesty. He and Anthony, whose partnership in Kansas dated back to land speculation activities in 1857, shared another trait – an appreciation of history. Wilder also commented on the Historical Society. Founded and watched over by journalists and publishers, it contained “every Issue of every paper in Kansas…bound and preserved.” Though Wilder does not mention Anthony by name, he does describe some of the qualities of a Kansas editor, qualities that Anthony had in spades. “The Kansas editor…makes a name in that…will live while the world turns round.” Of the people of Kansas he said they “cannot get along without newspapers, and lots of them. The Press is the Iron and the editor the blood” of Kansas towns.

D.W. Wilder was Historian who wrote The Annals of Kansas, a thorough study of Kansas history going back to 1541, the year of Hernan De Soto’s discovery of the Mississippi. As such,

The cover to an 1882 Kansas Day brochure for school children (courtesy, Kansas Memory)

his credentials as a student of History need no verification. Anthony however, deserves to be in the discussion of stewards of the past for his role in the creation of the Historical Society. While it may not have been his idea, he was almost certainly in the group of founders. He and his fellow journalists understood the importance of historical memory, and Anthony, always ambitious, wanted to be remembered. No doubt he also understood the impact he had has in both his editorial activities and otherwise. Nor was he the only one who acknolwedged this; the Iola Register of February 5, 1886, would remark on just how many of the “old-timers in connection” with the Quarter Century celebration were in the newspaper business. Anthony topped their list.

The attendance list and Wilder’s speech speak to the importance of newspapers and newspaper editors to life in Kansas during its first thirty years. Anthony was part of that – his role as an editor took him to great heights of power, as well as danger. Always conscious of his place in history and the way Kansas history would be remembered, he and his fellow editors strove to both preserve and write Kansas history.

 

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1878: Family Matters 2.0

D.R. Anthony had a good relationship with his immediate family. This included his sister as well as his parents and other siblings. The same cannot be said however about his relationship with cousin George Tobey Anthony.

George T. Anthony was similar to Daniel R. Anthony in many respects. Both were born to quaker families, G.T. Anthony near Mayfield in Fulton County NY. Both were newspaper editors, though George Anthony came to Leavenworth considerably later than Daniel Anthony (1865). Both served in the Civil War, George Anthony as a captain in an artillery regiment from NY and D.R. Anthony as a Lt. Col. in the 7th Kansas Vol. Cavalry. Both were strong Republicans. They were even born the same year – 1824 – with George being 74 days older than his cousin (June 9th as opposed to August 22nd). In the case of these two men however, family ties can only carry so far.

George Anthony served as governor of Kansas from 1876-1879, right at the peak of his cousin’s powers as an editor. It was those powers that D.R. used to deny his cousin a second term in office. According to a 1944 article from the Kansas Historical Quarterly, Daniel had supported George Anthony’s first run for office, but turned against him during the spring and summer of 1878.

In Spring of 1878, there were riots at a railroad company in Emporia Kansas, and Governor Anthony sent militia units to disperse the riot. The militiamen managed to kill a reverend while they were there, a sin for which Daniel never forgave his cousin. In a blisteringly sarcastic article from April 18, 1878, he lambasted him as a glory-seeking “war governor” who wanted a chance to rule with an iron fist.

Relations did not improve from there. On August 8, 1878, Anthony ran several front page stories criticizing the Governor for everything from preventing Kansas from holding a state fair, not having an exhibit at the World Exposition in Paris, and attempting to bring down other members of the government through trickery and printing false documents. He also alleges that the governors son was installed as bookkeeper of the state penitentiary, only to escape the duties of his job by having a convict do it for him, while still drawing his salary.

The final lines of a damning article, also from August 8, 1878, on the damage George Anthony had done to the state of Kansas’ attractiveness for immigrants summarize the Times’s opinion of the Governor.

“the lesson of all which is that Kansas cannot afford to repose on her laurels. Nor can she trust her future…to the obstinate do-nothing policy of George T. Anthony…Kansas must build anew but she must not be any longer in the blind guidance of a governor who kept us from reaping a harvest at the Paris exposition, who prevents us from gathering where we sowed at the centennial, and whose obstenancy [sic], if he had been permitted to have his way, would have prevented us from making that great display which won so much honor at Philadelphia.”

D.R. Anthony used his voice and power through his paper to help ruin his cousins bid for a second term, though Gov. Anthony may have undone himself as well through his some of his botched policies. Gov. Anthony did hold lesser offices later in life, but never again approached the power he had as Governor. Above all else, it is clear that Daniel Read Anthony would not follow blindly when a man in a position of power misused and abused that power. Even if that man was blood.

Sources

Connelley, William Elsey. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago: Lewis, 1918. Transcribed by Carolyn Ward, 2000 http://skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/archives/1918ks/v2/ch52p1.html

Newspaper articles courtesy of Chronicling America (http://www.chroniclingamerica.com/)

Image of George Tobey Anthony from Wikipedia

 

 

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1875: The Dangers of the Newspaper Business

D.R. Anthony lived a stormy, sometimes violent life. As powers as a newspaper editor grew during the early 1870s, he became a polarizing figure. His newspaper empire, built around the Leavenworth Times, made him a target of rival editors and on May 10, 1875, around 10:00 pm, one of these editors, W.W. Embry of the Commercial Appeal,made an attempt on Anthony’s life.

Like President Lincoln, Anthony was shot in a theater. According to the Leavenworth Times account of the event, it took place when Embry entered the theater at the corner of what is now 4th Street and Delaware St, between the 3rd and 4th acts of a play called “Leah.” He met Anthony while the latter was half-way down a flight of stairs from “the parquette,” The two men confronted each-other and exchanged words. Anthony had quarreled with editors before, but he was unarmed, and Embry had deadly intent. Reports differ on how many shots were fired, but the first was fired mere inches from Anthony’s face, so close that the explosion of gunpowder emitted from the barrel (along with the bullet) burned his face and beard. The shot entered the right side of his neck, shattered his clavicle in several places (comminuted fracture) and totally severed an artery in his chest before stopping somewhere further on in his body. Doctor Tiffin Sinks, a Leavenworth Physician, happened to be in the theater and was one of the first to attend Anthony. His account of what happened next is recorded in an 1879 “Biographical Sketch” of Anthony.

“immediatly after reciept of the injury, [Anthony] walked deliberately up from six to ten steps, twelve feet across the floor, and sat down upon a stool…he then became too faint to preserve the sitting posture and I laid him gently down upon the chairs.” Tiffin found the wound instantly; “bright arterial blood was flowing…from about an inch in height and three-eights of an inch in diameter. The appearance was that of a fountain playing at a very low pressure.” Anthony was bleeding out fast, and according to Sinks “within six seconds after the wound was exposed, the blood suddenly ceased to flow, and both respiration and pulsation stopped.” Anthony was clinically dead for “about one minute” when “respiration again began in a very feeble way.” Blood loss was estimated at “2 quarts,” or 35-45% that of an average human male.

Anthony had survived a wound that should have been fatal, and Sinks’ own description fairly marvells at how, chalking it up in large part to D.R.’s considerable (for the period) size of 6’0, 180 lbs and good health. Accounts of his shooting (and Embry’s arrest) made news nation-wide, and even the New York Times republished the full story. As if he needed to prove the point of his strength further, he chose to visit his sister in September of that year. This caused quite a stir because he was still suffering from a large aneurism and had been undergoing treatment as late as August 30th.

 


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1871-1872: Family Matters

 

In studying D.R. Anthony (right) it is impossible to forget his sister because of what she did for women in our country and around the world. Her and Daniel shared many beliefs, chief among them abolitionism. Growing up as they did in a progressive, liberal, Quaker household certainly instilled many of these beliefs, as well as creating strong family ties. Once they left the confines of home, however, Daniel went far afield to Kansas, while Susan stayed on the east coast. Two members of the same family who each became giants in their communities, separated by hundreds of mile.

This begs the question; what was their relationship like after they left home?

According to SBA biographer Ida Husted Harper, they were extremely close, writing and visiting often; one anecdote tells of Susan (left) dropping everything for a day just to enjoy the company of her brother when he came to Rochester.

In a collection of letters written by DRA and published in the Kansas Historical Quarterly,  Anthony writes to Susan multiple times, as well as to his father, mother, and brother-in-law. He writes them on such subjects as his business as an insurance agent, the possibility of land purchases for Susan, Bleeding Kansas and border affairs, and other events in his life. To Susan he wrote a letter dated June 20th, 1862, in which he told her of his General Order 26 he had given while on campaign in Tennessee that protected slaves who escaped into areas controlled by his forces. She would no doubt have approved, as she too was agitating for abolition.

After his war service, he returned to the newspaper business, and he took occasion to publish in the Times speeches and events involving his sister.

SBA goes to England – Leavenworth Times, November 23, 1871

his paper reports his sisters speech – February 1st, 1872

Scholars of SBA know that one of the biggest events in her life was her trial after her arrest for voting in New York. Did Daniel Read Anthony cover that? Of course he did!

The full text can be found here.

Perhaps to lighten the mood, in this particular issue of the Times, his embattled sister shared space with a comical story taken from the Saturday Evening Post of a man trying to catch a train into the city (presumably New York). The poor fellow discovers he is late, abandons his breakfast, and is chased by neighborhood dogs in his rush to reach the train. No doubt a story shared by many a commuter, both then and now. There were other railroad related articles as well.

Returning to the subject of Susan and Daniel’s relationship, it is safe to say it was a close one. Both had strong beliefs, owed in part to their upbringing, and they shared in each-others endeavors from afar. During the antebellum years, Daniel was more concerned with issues of Kansas’ statehood than he was with women’s suffrage, though the campaign for the latter in the west was well underway. He is alleged to have told Susan that statehood had to come first. With that achieved and the war behind him, he lent his voice in support of his sister. He died in 1904, 2 years before Susan. In a poignant anecdote that speaks to the love between a brother and sister, he left a provision in his will for a memorial to his famous sibling in the amount of $2,000. Perhaps DRA looked up to his big sister. No doubt he recognized her greatness.

Sources:

Harper, Ida Husted. The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony; Including Public Addresses, Her Own Letters and Many from Her Contemporaries During Fifty Years. Indianapolis and Kansas City: The Bowen-Merrill company, 1898.

“The Anthony Family in Adams, Massachusetts.” Susan B. Anthony Birthplace Museum, http://www.susanbanthonybirthplace.com/anthonyFamily.shtml.

All newspaper articles courtesy of Chronicling America (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/)

Images of DRA and SBA from wikipedia

 

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1872 – Anthony testifies to, comments on, Kansas Senator’s corruption

Proof of the power and respect Daniel R. Anthony commanded within the State of Kansas

is evident in one of the headlines of the 1872-73 political year. According to many sources, including William G. Cutler’s History of the State of Kansas, after the 1871 congressional elections, it came to light that Kansas Senator Alexander Caldwell (1830-1917) may have bribed members of the state legislature in order to procure their votes.

In February of 1872, the U.S. Senate authorized the “Senate Committee on Privileges and Elections” to investigate the charges. The investigation lasted over a year, and eventually resulted in the resignation Caldwell. (Mark Grossman, Political corruption in America: an encyclopedia of scandals, power, and greed, 2003, 44)

As an amusing aside, Caldwell’s entry in Grossman’s alphabetically arranged book is followed by Bill Clinton’s 1996 campaign finance scandal. Indeed, some things never change, whether 1872 or 1996, party politics is rife with corruption.

Anthony’s Leavenworth Times devoted much of its space to the trial events as they unfolded. In the February 29, 1872 edition of the Times, Anthony published the full text of the Senate Legislature’s authorization for an investigation, calling it “a chapter of damaging revelations” and “a bad job all around.” The same issue of Anthony’s mouthpiece offered advice for Senator Caldwell as well, saying “Mr Caldwell must meet the issue; the affair, however unwelcome it may be to him, and to the people of Leavenworth, cannot longer be ignored; to remain silent now is to plead guilty to the indictment.” The entire issue from Feb. 29, is available through the following link. In the same issue, but a different article, the paper argues that the investigation into Senator Caldwell, which appears to have first began in the Kansas State legislature, was probably instigated by opponents of Caldwell who were bitter over their defeat. A full copy of the Feb. 29th issue is available below.

Leavenworth Times report on senate office corruption case (courtesy, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/)

Besides commenting on it, Anthony was also called upon to testify in the case as it developed. Cutler lists him as a witness in his account in History of Kansas and a New York Times article from January 19, 1873, mentions his testimony on the year-long investigation. W.S. Banks was an associate of Anthony, and I’m not sure if calling him the “Editor” of the Leavenworth Times was appropriate on the part of the NYT or not.

(Courtesy, 19th Century U.S. Newspapers)

This was a complicated matter for Anthony. He was, like Caldwell, a staunch Republican, and his newspaper calls into question the character of the men accusing Caldwell of bribery. However, it is evident he testified against his fellow Republican. Perhaps the explanation lies in Anthony’s prized idea of personal honor and integrity. From my study of him so far, reputation and honor were two things he prized. His February 29th paper notes the unequivocal tone of the committee report. For Anthony, no matter how much it pained him to see a fellow Republican indicted, he was obliged to do what he thought the right thing and to testify against Caldwell during the long investigation that followed.

 

 

Sources:

Mark Grossman, Political corruption in America: an encyclopedia of scandals, power, and                 greed. New York: ABC-CLIO Inc., 2003, 44

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