Oil on canvas, Joseph Margulies, 1963, Collection of U.S. House of Representatives
- Democratic Congressman from Brooklyn, New York from 1923-1972
- supporter of Roosevelt New Deal policies
- advocate for establishment of the state of Israel
- chairman of the Judiciary Committee
- co-author of Indian Immigration and Naturalization Bill, H.R. 3517 which was passed on June 27, 1946
- key creator of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, 1964
American National Biography
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
You Never Leave Brooklyn: The Autobiography of Emanuel Celler. New York: John Day Co., 1953.
Papers: ca. 1924-1973. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.
Phillips, 1922, Courtesy of the Library of Congress
- Career diplomat stationed in England, China, the Netherlands, Canada
- Assistant Secretary of State, 1917
- Ambassador to Italy, 1936-1941
- Director of the OSS in London in 1942 until appointed Roosevelt’s personal representative to India on October 31, 1942 until FDR accepted his resignation on March 17, 1945
Online Reference Sources
William Phillips, American National Biography
Ventures in Diplomacy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1952.
Papers, Harvard University
- Hess does not believe the Phillips papers add much substantial information (189)
Reminiscences of William Phillips: oral history, 1951, Columbia University.
- Foreign relations journalist (reported from Soviet Union for 14 years) who worked to promote Indian independence cause in the U.S.
- Met extensively with Gandhi and later published a biography, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1950), which the Oscar-winning movie is based on
The Great Challenge. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946.
- Includes account of Fischer’s, May 1942 trip to India and his meetings with Nehru and Gandhi
- “No one imagines that independence will solve all of the problems of India. It will create problems. Freedom merely opens the door to the solution of the problems” (135).
The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1950.
- Ch. 38 “My Week with Gandhi”
- Gandhi gave Fischer a letter to deliver to Roosevelt. Gandhi later asked if Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms: “include the freedom to be free?” (376)
Image Courtesy of the New Georgia Encyclopedia
- Executive secretary of the NAACP from 1931-1955
- Advocate of Indian Independence
- Member of U.S. delegation to UN Conference in San Francisco, 1945
Online Reference Source:
Walter White, American National Biography
Janken, Kenneth Robert. White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP. New York: The New Press, 2003.
- “Before World War II the NAACP had exhibited only limited interest in the international dimensions of race.” (278)
- Papers located in the James Welldon Johnson Collection at Yale University
- A Rising Wind. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dorian and Company, Inc., 1945
White’s account of his information-gathering trip on the conditions of African-American soldiers in England, North Africa, the Middle East and Italy from January to March 1944.
- At a London dinner party, White notes that none of the dinner guests made a connection between, “the American attitude toward Negroes whose skins were black or brown and the British attitude towards Indians whose skins were brown” (31).
- “World War II has given to the Negro a sense of kinship with other colored–and also oppressed–peoples of the world” (144)
- “If already planned race riots and lynchings of returning Negro soldiers “to teach them their place” are consummated, if Negro war workers are first fired, if India remains enslaved… World War III will be in the making before the last gun is fired in World War II” (154).
- “Can the United States, Britain, and other ‘white’ nations any longer afford, in enlightened self-interest, racial superiority?” (154)
- “The United States, Great Britain, France, and other Allied nations must choose without delay one of two courses–to revolutionize their racial concepts and practices, to abolish imperialism and grant full equality to all of its people, or else prepare for World War III” (154)
- A Man Called White, The Autobiography of Walter White. New York: Viking Press, 1948.
- Papers of the NAACP, Library of Congress
Drew Pearson, 1954, Courtesy of the Library of Congress
- wrote the popular syndicated political column, “Washington Merry-Go-Round,” for the Washington Post from the 1930s until 1969
- on July 25, 1944, published a leaked letter written by William Phillips, criticizing the British stance on Indian Independence
- held a weekly radio program from 1938-1955
Pearson, Washington Post, July 25, 1944
American National Biography, profile
Oliver Pilat, Drew Pearson: An Unauthorized Biography. New York: Harper’s Magazine Press, 1973.
Papers, Lyndon B. Johnson Library, University of Texas, Austin.
Diaries, 1949-1959. Ed. Tyler Abell New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974.
“Confessions of an S.O.B.,” Saturday Evening Post, November 3, 1956, pg. 23-25, 87-91, 94. (4 Part Series)
- “The luck really began when I was able to publish, during the latter part of the war, the secret report written to Roosevelt by his special ambassador to India, William Phillips, recommending independence or dominion status for India. Phillips reasoned that if India were given some inspiration to fight, she could raise enough troops to crack the Japanese from from Burma and the south, thereby saving many American lives. Thanks to a State Department official who wanted to see American lives saved, I was able to obtain and publish that report, together with some intercepted British cables, declaring that Ambassador Phillips, never again would be permitted in India. I think my publication hastened dominion status for India, but in any case it made the British see red” (88, 90).
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian
- established diplomatic relations with interim government of India on Nov. 1, 1946 after announcing intention on Oct. 22 (Interim gov’t formed on Sept. 2)
- recognized Indian independence on August 15, 1947
- 1992- created position of Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs
CHIEFS OF MISSION FOR INDIA
Foreign Relations of the United States with India:
FRUS, 1941; FRUS, 1942; FRUS, 1943; FRUS, 1944; FRUS, 1945; FRUS, 1946; FRUS, 1947
Department of State, 1941, courtesy of University of Minnesota
- Republican Representative for 4th District CT (1942-1946)
Clare Boothe Luce, 1955, Collection of the US House of Representatives
- writer for Life and Time, both published by husband Henry
- sponsor of 1946 House bill to extend citizenship to Indians
American National Biography profile
Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
Morris, Sylvia Jukes. Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce. New York: Random House, 1997.
Papers, 1930-1987. Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress.
- owner of Clark H. Getts, Inc., a “lecture and radio production bureau” who organized a lecture series for Mme. Pandit in 1945 as she made her way from New York City to San Francisco
- In her memoir, Pandit describes Getts as “an amazing little man” who expected her to be bedazzled in colorful saris and jewels (The Scope of Happiness, 192)
- “Clark was intelligent, sophisticated, and creative. His many interests included art, literature, current events, and history. Although his company was a small one, her was highly respected in the field” (Imperato, They Married Adventure: The Wandering Lives of Martin & Osa Johnson, 194).
Papers, 1932-1980. American Heritage Center, The University of Wyoming.
Getts' introduction to Pandit lecture series
Pandit lecture tour program
Lt. Robert A. Walsh spent one year at Dickinson as a member of the class of 1941 before joining the Army Air Corps after Pearl Harbor. Beginning in March 1943, Walsh served in the India-China line. On May 15, 1943, his plane did not return from a flight between India and China and Walsh was declared missing in action.
In February 1943, First Lt. Theodore C. Stroose left Dickinson College during the last semester of his senior to enlist in the Army Air Corps. Strouse was stationed in the India-China theater, where he flew 41 missions in B-25 Bombers with the 10th Air Force. He was killed on July 11, 1945, while returning to a rest base in India.
First Lt. Theodore C. Strouse
Lt. Robert A. Walsh
The Dickinson Almunus published both students’ obituaries.