A glimpse of Some of the Major Literary Theories

December 5, 2015
by hepnerm
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Postcolonialism

Originally developed in the 1950s by Alfred Sauvy, Postcolonialism is the subjugation and oppression of one population of people by another. In Sauvy’s case it was the First World conquering the Third World. This occurs through the physical taking of land but afterwards the cultural changes such as language, art, practices and religion. This change effectively eliminates all knowledge of the previous culture over time and ensures the dominance of another. Colonization makes these efforts seem to be noble and civilizing people who previously were savages. In many cases these people simply had a unique and different culture from the colonizers who did not want to adapt or learn and exploited or abused the native population until they submitted.  Edward Said in 1978 pointed out Orientalism, which stated that those which are not part of a European or American stereotype are part of the “other” world and are inferior and irrational. Postcolonialism looks at those whose cultures have been destroyed or have lost their native identity. They seek to learn from those people and give them a voice so their heritage is not lost with time. Postcolonialism wants to hear the entirety of the story and work to bring a complete history and not one that is simply Western.

 

La Llegada de Colón es sobre los viajes al Nuevo Mundo de Colón y su descubiertos allí. Todo es por el perspectivo de un colonizador. Describe que todo es bueno y los indígenas son como salvajes y no hay una razón para aprender su cultura o sus derechos. Es necesaria para influir los indios en su cultura hispana. Solamente quiere el oro que los indios tiene y quiere el factor exótico de las personas sin la humanidad que tienen. Colón demonstra que  las personas en los viajes usa su fuerza y tecnología para cambiar todo y no pensar que vamos a perder una cultura y muchas personas. El cuenta explica las problemas con colonialismo y que los colonizados no tiene un voz y la reemplazo de culturas.

December 4, 2015
by Maddie Groves
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Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism is a method of evaluating and analyzing a literary piece. Alfred Sauvy first developed the theory during the 1950s when he created the term “third world” to refer to developing countries. The opposite, “first world,” countries usually referred to countries in Europe and North America whereas third world countries were usually referred to those located in South America and Africa. Evaluating the power structure, it is easy to see that first world countries influenced, dominated, and colonized third world countries. The colonialism that is referred to is not solely political, but also cultural. When using the postcolonialism method to analyze literature, the cultural aspect is what postcolonialism looks to evaluate. Three things to look for are mimicry (how the colonized society copies the colonizer), universalism, eurocentrism, (feelings of superiority of the colonizer), hybridity (mixture or combination of cultures) and others. The movement grew in the 1990s and become more widespread.

La llegada de Colón, por Alejo Carpentier es un cuento sobre la vida de Colón (un europeo) durante de su descubrimiento del “Nuevo Mundo” y después del descubrimiento con reflexiones. El cuento se escribe de la perspectiva de Colón, un colonizador. A través su explanación sobre sus intenciones y sus experiencias, es evidente que el tema de eurocentrismo y su superioridad existe con tres referencias: la comparación de Colón y Jesús, la cambia de lenguaje a cosas que refieren a cosas europeas, y la actitud en general de Colón sobre los indios como personas extrañas.

December 4, 2015
by Madeleine
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Los estudios culturales y poscolonialismo

Madeleine Gardner
Profesor Sagastume
SPAN 305
el 3 de diciembre

Los estudios culturales y poscolonialismo

La teoría de poscolonialismo pertenece a las ideas del Primer Mundo en contra del Tercer Mundo. El Tercer Mundo es término creado por Alfred Saury en 1950 para dar nombre a la mayoría de los paises por ejemplo en Africa y Sudamerica que les faltan un gobierno organizado central, un económica fuerte, y una distribución de bienes eficaz. Luego en 1978 Edward Said escribió de orientalismo, que es un estereotipo que los europeos y los estadounidenses son superiores. Con esta perspectiva, todos otros son “otros,” cuales son inferiores, desplazados, extranjeros, y no “el normal.” Y también se desarrolló la ideas de eurocentrismo, la idea que el colonizador es civilado mientras que el otro es salvaje, y el otro exótico, la idea que hay belleza exótica y natural en el extranjero pero lo objetiva. Después del acto de colonizar un lugar, la identidad de los colonizados cambia. Empiecen a imitar la ropa, la lengua, comportamientos, etc para adoptar los del colonizadores. La teoría de poscolonialismo y los estudios culturales sirve a analizar los cambios de una gente, por ejemplo expresiones o frases del idioma o imitaciones, y hace una crítica en favor o en contra de una cierta cultura. El propósito es examinar los efectos de colonialismo en la cultura y la vida de los colonizados.

En “La llegada de Colón,” el narrador dice el cuento de descubrir el nuevo mundo a través de la perspectiva de Cristóbal Colón. Una gran parte de su historia es describiendo las indígenas que los españoles se reunieron. Cuando llegaron, los colonizadores se reían de los nativos, ignorían sus derechos a la tierra porque su prioridad era buscar el oro, se llamaban los nativos “indios” sin escuchar a sus nombres, y se veían la tierra como una extensión de su propio territorio. Por el uso del “otro exótico,” sentidos de superioridad, y la proyección de cultura encima de otra, los colonizadores del cuento demostraban la capacidad de humanos a tratar personas como objetos, no humanos.

December 4, 2015
by duttan
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Post Colonialism

Deriving from colonialism dating back to the 1950’s, post colonialism is a literary theory that explores “…culture from the beginning of colonization to the present” (Dobie 208). Colonialism occurs when one population either physically or culturally imposes on another. Colonization can be seen throughout history and is still occurring today. Some examples include the British colonization of India and the Americas. In both examples, under British rule, the original inhabitants were either forced out or forced to change traditional customs in order to accommodate a new culture such as clothing, food, language, etc. In fact, Alfred Sauvy invented the term of Third World, in reference to African and South American regions, that are areas that normally become overpowered with the First World First World which are European and North American regions, that have the power to exhibit colonization and characterized as regions that underwent industrialization. The theory postcolonial became popular around the 1980’s and explored the stages of colonization from beginning to present day. Edward Said wrote Orientalism, published in 1978, which introduced the term of “other” in order to reference those inferior and oppressed by the colonizers. These subjected people include minorities, mentally disable, physically disabled, gay, lesbian, transgender and a multitude of other characteristics that separates them from the majority and therefore having a sense of unhomeliness and displacement.

 

El cuento, “La llegada de Colón” escrito por Alejo Carpentier, es en una perspectiva de Cristóbal Colón. El cuento es separado en dos partes: en el primero Colón describe sus viajes a la nueva tierra “mundo nuevo” y para el segunda parte el refleja sus memorias y interacciones con los nativos durante este época. El cuento representa la teoría de post colonialismo porque dentro sus descripciones del su llegada, el ilumina el comportamientos de los europeos hacia la población indígena y cómo los europeos usan la fuerza a instilar sus religión, tradiciones y costumbres a la población. Dentro las reflexiones en “La llegada de Colón”, el voz narrador de Colón muestra la opresión de los nativos durante el proceso de la colonización.

December 4, 2015
by klimm
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Poscolonialismo y “La llegada de Colón”

1. Postcolonialism can be best described as the study of the global effects of European colonization.  Specifically, this branch of cultural studies seeks to analyze cultures whose traditional language, laws, religion, and literature have been affected by domination from Europe.  The roots of postcolonial historical analysis can be found in the study of colonialism.  Colonialism is simply defined as the subjugation of one culture by the hands of another.  However, this forced subjugation not only involves military conquest, but also extends to the imposition of the dominant power’s values and customs upon the conquered peoples.  Interest in postcolonialism dates back to the 1950’s when Alfred Sauvy coined the term “third world” to refer to underdeveloped nations in Africa and South America.  This interest would lead to initial studies being conducted in the decades to follow – although the actual term “postcolonial” would not be coined until the late 1980’s.  These studies would incorporate several theories (e.g. Marxism and feminism) and would make inroads into a diverse set of fields (e.g. political science, sociology, psychology, etc.).

Beginning with the work Orientalism by Edward Said, writers would begin to ask questions regarding subjects which were impacted by the process of colonization such as language, oppression, cultural identity, race, and education.  In his work, Said brings to the forefront the concept of the “other.”  This construct is used by the colonial power in order to depict those unlike themselves as being indecent or inferior.  Therefore, the colonial power is able to differentiate themselves (by means of culture, race, religious background, etc.) from the people that they wish to militarily or economically subjugate in order to justify their actions.

Finally, with respect to analyzing the literature of a subjugated people literature through a postcolonial perspective, one must take into account two fundamental ideas: the concept of the double conscious (the fact that the literature of a colonized or subjugated people views the world through the contrasting perspectives of both the colonizer and the colonized) and the concept of unhomeliness (which is the permanent sense of being culturally displaced, of being caught between two cultures and not feeling “at home” in either).

2. En el cuento “La llegada de Colón,” el autor cubano, Alejo Carpentier, recuenta la historia del descubrimiento de América y del comienzo de la conquista a través de los ojos del líder de la expedición, Cristóbal Colon.  Al tomar esta perspectiva, el autor busca a destacar las ideologías y las creencias de los españoles los que motivaron su tratamiento y explotación de las poblaciones indígenas en el Mundo Nuevo.  Se puede argumentar, entonces, que mediante contando la historia de este punto de vista, el autor busca a destacar las actitudes de eurocentrismo y superioridad de los exploradores españoles, y muestra cómo estas creencias conducen a la identificación la gente de América Latina como un salvaje “otro,” quien era intrínsecamente inferior.  En la trama del cuento, el impacto de la colonización es más evidente en la propagación de la lengua española a las poblaciones indígenas, en la superioridad percibida de la cultura europea, y en la supremacía de la Iglesia Católica – en la que la pertenencia fue fundamental para ser un miembro adecuado de la sociedad.  Mediante un análisis poscolonial, es posible ver el impacto duradero que la colonización de España dejaría en  la sociedad latinoamericana durante y después de la época colonial.

December 4, 2015
by mazurs
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Postcolonialism

Post colonialism is a literary theory that began in the 1950s with Alfred Sauvy developing the term “Third World,” and became popular in the 1990s. It focuses on the subjugation of the Third World by the First World, or, more generally the subjection of one population by another. Though it is most often political conquest that is referred to as colonialism, it is also found in the domination of culture, language, and economy. Edward Said’s Orientalism also influenced post colonialism, questioning the dichotomy between the European and the “other,” or those in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Post colonialism, according to Gilbert and Tompkins, does not only study the time period after imperial governments, but rather lingers with social hierarchies, power structures, and economic inequality. Postcolonial literature focuses on clashes and erasures in cultures and identities.

El cuento “La llegada de Colón” por Alejo Carpentier describe en dos partes como Cristóbal Colón descubierto el “Mundo Nuevo.” Primero, el autor describe la historia de la perspectiva del tercer persona, y, después, de la perspectiva de Colón. Los pensamientos de Colón nos dicen que los Europeos sintieron superior a los nativos, y justifica el subyugación. Con el foco en la narrativa en Colón y los Europeos, el cuento muestra la idea de Eurocentrismo, una idea del postcolonialismo, y también la distinción del “otro,” o los nativos. Los dos partes del cuento influyen narrativa dominante de la llegado de Colón, cuando los nativos no tienen ni una voz ni humanidad en el cuento.

December 4, 2015
by drawbaud
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Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism is a school of literary analysis that gives a voice to third world cultures that were subjugated by first world countries. It explains colonization and de-colonization from the perspective of colonized country, and shows the immediate and long term effects that colonization had on third world cultures. It addresses how the process of colonization crippled the political and social integrity of many countries, and destroyed many third world traditions. It was introduced in the 1950s when Alfred Sauvy coined the term “Third World”. According to Sauvy, third world countries lacked industrial development, democratic values, and wealth.

“La llegada de Colón” por Alejo Carpentier describe los viajes de Cristobal Colon a travez dos perspectivos. El primer perspectivo ilustre los viajes a la tierra nueva en sus tiempos, y el segundo perspectivo ilustre los viajes desde unas confesiones de Colón. Los dos perspectivos muestran los viajes con características diferentes. El primer perspectivo ilustre los viajes como colonizaciones exitosas que creaban vidas buenas para mucha gente, y el segundo perspectivo ilustre los viajes como colonizaciones malas que causaban mucho sufrimiento. El segundo perspectivo es importante porque muestra los problemas de la colonización.

December 4, 2015
by zikmundl
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Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism is a method of literary analysis that emphasizes investigating lost or unrepresented identities as a result of the effects of the oppression colonialism had on certain cultures. Colonialism, as it is defined, is “the subjection of one population to another” (Dobie 208). Postcolonialism aims to analyze the effects of that colonization on different cultures. Though it was not really used until the 1980s, many theories on postcolonialism were published as early as the 1960s. Alfred Sauvy, who coined the term “third world” in the 1950s, was the initial spark for interest in post colonialism. This separation created more discussion about the disparities between the first and third worlds, and the implications of first world power over less dominant cultures. In line with this way of thinking, Edward Said analyzed what he called “orientalism” which called attention to stereotypes dominant cultures-British, Europeans, Americans- create about other cultures. A postcolonialist viewpoint understands these ideas from what is called a “double consciousness”, in other words through the perspective of the colonized and the colonizer. In order to do a post colonialist analysis of a text, among several other things, one must inquire about aspects such as the perspective through which the story is told, the possible mis/unrepresented people, and the relationships between the colonized and colonizers.

El cuento, “La llegada de Colón”, escrito por Alejo Carpentier, habla sobre las experiencias de Cristobal Colón en el mundo nuevo. El primer parte es sobre los viajes entre la perspectiva de Colón, y el resto es un reflexión en los al fin de su vida. El fin de su vida es dedicada a confesar sus errores. Lo que es interesante sobre este cuento es que nadie se puede saber si los cuentos son totalmente verdad por que son de la perspectiva de Colón. También, solamente habla de las experiencias de los españoles y no menciona las experiencias de las indias. De un análisis postcolonialismo, se puede ver la opresión de los indios por que no tienen ningún representación en estos cuentos.

December 4, 2015
by pollockc
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Post colonialism- Chris Pollock

Post colonialism dates back to the 1950’s when Alfred Suavy used the term “Third World” in order to define developing nations, usually a part of Africa and South America.  This term differs from the more common term of “first world” which describes the countries in Europe and North America.  These nations are characterized by industrialization, democracy, relative affluence, and similar cultural assumptions and beliefs.  The members of the First World nations are generally known as oppressors of the members of the Third World nations which involves both of them in post colonialism.  It is important to under the concept of colonialism before one can understand post colonialism.  Colonialism is the oppression of one population over another, and when people are colonized their traditions are taken over by the colonizers of this culture.  The idea of post colonialism deals with what happens to a culture after they are colonized up until the present time.  Post colonialism as a literary criticism gained popularity in the 1990’s, which looks at writers of post colonial and colonial eras.  There are many different ideologies that are important to post colonialism and include; universalism, Eurocentrism, and cultural colonization just to name a few.

 

El cuento “La llegada de Colón,” es sobre el descubrimiento del nuevo mundo por Cristobal Colón.  El cuento es divide en dos partes, el primero es sobre la llegada y el segundo parte es sobre que pasó a través del punto de vista de Colón.  Esta segunda parte tiene mucho información sobre el colonialismo de los europeos en el nuevo mundo.  Esta sección se centra en que pasó con los españoles específicamente, pero no discutir las problemas para la gente nativa.  El cuento muestra la idea postcolonialisto de egocentrismo, con la comparación entre Colón y Jesus Cristo que es una tema muy importante para saber los elementos de la historia.

December 4, 2015
by bellal
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Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism began to rise during the 1950s when Alfred Sauvy coined the term Third World, which referred to developing nations. There is a correlation between this new term, Third World, and the First World countries—those in most of Europe and North America. Generally speaking, many members of the First World have been the oppressors to members of the Third World, so both are involved in the discussion of postcolonialism. The idea of colonialism must be explained before one is able to understand the idea of postcolonialism. Colonialism, by definition, is the subjection of one population to another. When people are colonized, their traditions and practices are supplanted by imitations of those of the colonizer. Postcolonialism, therefore, is interested in what happens to a culture from the beginning of colonization to the present. The culture that is left is a mixture of the colonized one and that of the colonizer, often marked by resentment and blended practice. Edward Said’s Orientalism, published in 1978, discussed First World views of the “other”, which was a precursor to postcolonialism. Postcolonial literary criticism, however, gained much attraction in the early 1990s, which looks at the works of postcolonial writers and colonial writers as well. Postcolonialism is hard to set down basic principles, yet there are basic assumptions that are accepted as important to postcolonial theory which include, cultural colonization, mimicry, universalism, Eurocentrism, exotic other, demonic other, and others.

“La llegada de Colón”, escrito por Alejo Carpentier, es un cuento sobre el descubrimiento del “nuevo mundo”, dicho por Cristóbal Colón. “La llegada de Colón” es dicho por Cristóbal Colón y solamente sabemos eso cuento en esa manera. La trama, sin embargo, no es exactamente lo que sabemos de la historia. Divida en dos partes, el cuento dice el viaje del Colón y luego dice los pensamientos de Colón. Por lo tanto, no sabemos exactamente lo que pasó. “La llegada de Colón” es un representación claramente de “postcolonialismo” de Eurocentrismo. Poco a poco, borra la cultura y tradiciones. De los pensamientos de Colón, todo lo del nuevo mundo sea cotejado a Europea. Podemos ver el cambio en la cultura, desde las practicas hasta los vestidos.