Introduction – History of the Battery – How a Battery Works – Types of Modern Batteries – What are Nanobatteries Made of?–Nanobattery Uses – What will a Nanobattery Replace – Social Effects of Nanobatteries – Economical Effects of Nanobatteries– Environmental Effects of Nanobatteries -Bibliography
Modern batteries use a variety of chemicals to power their reactions. Typical battery chemistries include:
•Zinc-carbon battery – Also known as a standard carbon battery, zinc-carbon chemistry is used in all inexpensive AA, C and D dry-cell batteries. The electrodes are zinc and carbon, with an acidic paste between them that serves as the electrolyte.
•Alkaline battery – Alkaline chemistry is used in common Duracell and Energizer batteries, the electrodes are zinc and manganese-oxide, with an alkaline electrolyte.
•Lithium-iodide battery – Lithium-iodide chemistry is used in pacemakers and hearing aides because of their long life.
•Lead-acid battery – Lead-acid chemistry is used in automobiles, the electrodes are made of lead and lead-oxide with a strong acidic electrolyte (rechargeable).
•Nickel-cadmium battery – The electrodes are nickel-hydroxide and cadmium, with potassium-hydroxide as the electrolyte (rechargeable).
•Nickel-metal hydride battery – This battery is rapidly replacing nickel-cadmium because it does not suffer from the memory effect that nickel-cadmiums do (rechargeable).
•Lithium-ion battery- With a very good power-to-weight ratio, this is often found in high-end laptop computers and cell phones.
•Zinc-air battery – This battery is lightweight and rechargeable.
•Zinc-mercury oxide battery – This is often used in hearing-aids.
•Silver-zinc battery – This is used in aeronautical applications because the power-to-weight ratio is good.