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Primary Sources

Act of June 2, 1924, Public Law 68-175, 43 STAT 253, which authorized the Secretary of the Interior to issue certificates of citizenship to Indians., 06/02/1924; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 – 1996; General Records of the U.S. Government; Record Group 11; National Archives.

An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91, NADP Document A1887.

AIM , “Show your Solidarity with the Indian Nations,” poster from Wounded Knee occupation, 1973,” exhibits, accessed December 20, 2019,

Brookings Institution, and Lewis Meriam. 1971. The problem of Indian administration. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp.

Brown, Dee. “Behind the Trail Of Broken Treaties An Indian Declaration of Independence. By Vine Deloria Jr.” The New York Times, November 24, 1974.

Chavers, Dean. “Alcatraz Is Not an Island.” World Literature Today 93, no. 4 (2019): 61-64.

Maggiora, Vincent, This Land is My Land, 1969, photograph, San Francisco: San Francisco Chronicle, (accessed December 19, 2019)

Office of the Secretary of War, Report of the Secretary of War for 1891, General Nelson A. Miles. Vol 1, Washington DC

Official Report of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction (1892), 46–59. Reprinted in Richard H. Pratt, “The Advantages of Mingling Indians with Whites,”  Americanizing the American Indians: Writings by the “Friends of the Indian” 1880–1900(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973), 260–271.

United States Office Of Indian Affairs. Indian Reservations west of the Mississippi River. 1:3,500,000. Washington D.C.: United States Office of Indian Affairs, 1923

Secondary Sources

“American Indian Movement Advocates for Urban Indian Rights – Timeline – Native Voices.” U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Accessed December 20, 2019.

“Carlisle Indian School Digital Resource Center.” “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man”: Capt. Richard H. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans | Carlisle Indian School Digital Resource Center, 1892, richard-h-pratt-education-native-americans.

“Congress Creates Reservations to Manage Native Peoples – Timeline – Native Voices.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 

Fraust, Molly Suzanne., Latini, Stephanie Whelan., McWeeney, Kathleen Frances., Moyer, Kathryn Margaret., Turner, Laura Gail., Valdes-Dapena, Antonia Jan., and Earenfight, Phillip. Visualizing a Mission : Artifacts and Imagery of the Carlisle Indian School, 1879- 1918 Carlisle, Pa: The Trout Gallery, Dickinson College, 2004. 

Harjo, Suzan Shown., Nation to Nation : Treaties Between the United States & American Indian Nations First edition. Washington, DC: Published by the National Museum of the American Indian in association with Smithsonian Books, 2014. 

Krogstad, Jens Manuel. “One-in-Four Native Americans and Alaska Natives Are Living in Poverty.” Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, living-in-poverty, 2014

Norris, Tina, Paula L. Vines, and Elizabeth M. Hoeffel. “The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010.”, 2010.

Ostler, Jeffrey. “Conquest and the State: Why the United States Employed Massive Military Force to Suppress the Lakota Ghost Dance.” Pacific Historical Review 65, no. 2 (1996): 217-48. doi:10.2307/3639984.