Modern US History

All the modern US history fit to print

Category: Mia Romano

Introduction

This project will outline the experience of veterans coming home from war in modern U.S. history, with a focus on the government’s and the American people’s response to their homecoming. Also highlighted are the racial division in veterans’ experiences. U.S. involvement in foreign conflicts has always been an integral part of telling the story of the United States, but far less is explored concerning the experience of servicemen in readjusting back to civilian life. Historically, the government has not fully delivered on its promises to help veterans in their readjustment, a trend incongruent with rhetoric surrounding the appreciation of veterans. This exhibition will document the various struggles of integrating back into civilian life for veterans from a variety of conflicts.

Beginning with the Spanish-American War and ending with the Vietnam War, this exhibition will remark on the transformation of veterans’ healthcare, government benefits, and perception by the American people throughout the twentieth century. Special attention will be paid to the continuity of mental health services and racism following American wars of the last century. The exhibition begins with the founding of the United Spanish War Veterans in 1899, the first national organization for veterans. Mental health services would not become a priority for veterans’ advocates until World War I, as shell shock affected many homecoming servicemen. Through World War II and into the 1960s, benefits for veterans increased, as did visibility for mental illness as a result of combat. Later, during the Vietnam War, the unpopularity of the war affected benefits and veteran experiences coming home. This discontent, faced by many veterans upon returning home, led some to create the national organization, Vietnam Veterans Against the War. This organization advocated for the end to the war and  for veterans benefits, especially for those afflicted mentally by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and physically by the harmful effects of defoliants like Agent Orange.

While veterans’ groups can be traced to before the Spanish-American War, it was in 1899, after this conflict, when the first truly national veterans’ organization was formed. Prior to 1899, the existing groups were divided by North and South, as the last war fought by Americans was the Civil War. The most influential group from the Civil War was the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), a Union veterans’ group. This large organization, following the end of the Spanish-American War, excluded the veterans of this war from their ranks. Consequently, the United Spanish War Veterans (USWV) was created in 1899. They championed themselves as a unifying force, bringing together the sons of Union and Confederate soldiers to keep alive the memory of their service in Cuba. However, despite “serving under One national flag”[1] the organization remained divided. Unlike the GAR, who allowed for integrated local chapters, USWV kept chapters, also known as camps, separate for black and white veterans [2].

The project then moves to World War I, where returning veterans were first greeted by parades, followed by unemployment and a lack of government compensation for their service. A period of economic decline occurred immediately after the end of World War I, as businesses had to return to their pre-war production activities. This left many veterans, able and disabled, jobless. Government agencies such as the U.S. Employment Service and the Federal Board of Vocational Education attempted to diminish unemployment among veterans but largely failed due to bureaucratic ineptness at state and local levels. Programs were also aimed mostly at able-bodied white men, returning home to be the breadwinners for their families [3]; even programs for disabled veterans excluded the more severely disabled, also in need of jobs [4]. African American veterans fared even worse, as their medical treatment, and also military units, were segregated. Their efforts to integrate hospitals and provide equal access to treatment paved the way for movements to desegregate the military and veterans’ care [5]. During the interwar period, strides were made by the government and veterans themselves. Even though the many federal veterans’ agencies were united by Hoover in 1930 as the Department of Veterans’ Affairs, the Bonus Army, a group of disgruntled and poor veterans, marched in 1932 to protest the lack of government compensation for their service in World War I.

By World War II, the U.S. government realized some of its mistakes from World War I and the decades following. The passage of the G.I. Bill in 1944 was a landmark piece of legislation that made upward mobility possible for millions of returning servicemen. White veterans in particular took advantage of the college education, housing, car and business loans and monthly stipend at the government’s expense. In the years after the war, around 70% of college students were veterans [6], creating a dramatic increase in college enrollment in general. However, the local administration of these benefits meant African American veterans were largely excluded from such benefits, as racism and the fallacy of “separate but equal” was still pervasive in United States following World War II. This period also saw the legitimizing of mental health services for veterans in VA hospitals across America. A decade after the passage of the G.I. Bill, Armistice Day, November 11, was officially renamed Veteran’s Day, in honor of all veterans, which at that point included conflicts up to the Korean War.

The Vietnam War saw the upending of decades of progress, as consequences for the unpopularity of the war fell on veterans. VA hospitals were under-funded and public perception of veterans was at a new low. Even though the G.I. Bill was amended in 1966, 1972 and 1974, black veterans had difficulty reaping the same benefits as their white counterparts, despite the landmark civil rights legislation of the 1960s [7]. These actions by the government and the people, coupled with first-hand experiences of the harsh realities of war, led some to form the organization known as Vietnam Veterans Against the War in 1967. Many Americans saw these veterans as traitors to America and the perception of this organization was met even less favorably than veterans themselves [8]. This group of disillusioned veterans rallied foremost for an end to the war and for benefits for disabled veterans, disabled by PTSD and Agent Orange especially. The addition of PTSD to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was a culmination of a century’s worth of struggle on the part of suffering veterans and their families, Additionally, a government study found that defoliants like Agent Orange, used to strip the Vietnamese landscape of cover for NVA and Viet Cong troops, had deadly effects, the specifics of which are still being articulated to this day [9].

 

Notes

  1. United Spanish War Veterans, History of the Organization of the United Spanish War Veterans. Complied by W.D. Tucker, (Canton, Ohio: United Spanish War Veterans, 1921.) From Library of Congress, Americana. https://archive.org/details/historyoforganiz00tuck/page/n1 (Accessed November 18, 2018).
  2. Barbara A. Gannon, “‘They Call Themselves Veterans: Civil War and Spanish War Veterans and the Complexities of Veteranhood,” The University of North Carolina Press, no. 4 (2015): 528-550
  3. Daniel Amsterdam, “Before the Roar: U.S. Unemployment Relief after World War I and the Long History of a Paternalist Welfare Policy.” Journal of American History, Volume 101, Issue 4, (1 March 2015): 1123–1143
  4. Scott Gelber, “A ‘Hard-Boiled Order’: The Reeducation of Disabled WWI Veterans in New York City.” Journal of Social History39, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 161–80.
  5. Jessica Adler, “‘The Service I Rendered Was Just as True’: African American Soldiers and Veterans as Activist Patients.” American Journal of Public Health107, no. 5 (May 2017): 675–83.
  6. John  Bound and Sarah Turner, “Going to War and Going to College: Did World War II and the G.I. Bill Increase Educational Attainment for Returning Veterans?,” Journal of Labor Economics 20, no. 4 (October 2002): 784-815.
  7. Douglas Craddock, Jr., “War, Civil Rights, and Higher Education: African American Vietnam Veterans, the Civil Rights Era, and the G.I. Bill.” PhD diss. University of Alabama, 2002.
  8. Andrew Hunt, The Turning : A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. (New York: New York University Press, 1999.) ProQuest Ebook Central.
  9. Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides Committee, Board on the Health of Select Populations Staff, and Institute of Medicine. Veterans and Agent Orange : Update 2018. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2018. National Academy of Sciences, https://www.nap.edu/resource/25137/111318_VAO_2018_highlights.pdf (Accessed November 18, 2018).

 

 

 

World War I

Welcome Home Our Gallant Boys, poster (1918)

This 1918 poster depicts a woman in a white robe, holding up the flags of the major powers who fought in World War I. Famous battles are written in the small white panels on the borders while the poster reads, “Welcome home our gallant boys” in red on the bottom and “Peace Justice Liberty” across the top in gold. Pride for veterans after World War I, as in most wars, was abundant and not restricted to any specific nation. This sense of pride fostered by, in this case, the U.S. stands in stark contrast to our government’s actual response to veterans in the years after World War I.  At this point in time, the government failed to sufficiently compensate and employ veterans at promised rates, leading to the Bonus Army march in Washington D.C. in 1932, shown in a latter exhibit. This poster demonstrates the trend of the U.S. government to let down its veterans in rhetoric versus action.

 

Jobs for Fighters, poster (1919)

This 1919 poster shows a former soldier, known as a “doughboy” in America, walking into the U.S. Employment Service to get himself a job. The full title of the poster is ” Jobs for fighters – If you need a job, if you need a man, inform the official central agency – The service is free The United States Employment Service, Bureau for Returning Soldiers and Sailors.” The transition of U.S. industry from making war-related goods back to its prewar activities in the years following the end of World War I was hard on the economy. Returning veterans found their jobs had gone to civilians or found that their position no longer existed, leaving many unemployed. The government tried to help with the U.S. Employment Service, but campaigns such as this failed to employ veterans at the rates promised by the government. Despite an outpouring of appreciation and admiration for veterans, as shown in the 1918 poster, Welcome home our gallant boys, efforts to employ veterans did not reach the same levels. Funding for the federal Employment Service was very low[1] and at the urging of President Hoover, aid would be dispersed mostly at the state and local levels. The poster also denotes the fact that these benefits were often only given to white veterans and not afforded to black veterans.

 

“Veterans’ Bureaus United By Hoover”, Special to the New York Times, July 9, 1930

This 1930 newspaper article describes President Herbert Hoover’s Executive Order 5398. The bill consolidated the Veterans’ Bureau, Bureau of Pensions and the National Home of Disabled Volunteer Soldiers into a federal agency called the Veterans’ Administration, under the purview of Brigadier General Frank Hines. The Veterans’ Administration would be the predecessor of the Department of Veteran’s Affairs. Hoover’s attempt to streamline the process for compensation and medical benefits benefitted hospitals much more than the actual soldiers as laws about delayed compensation for veterans were already on the books. This federalization of the veterans’ benefits only addressed some of the concerns of veterans, least of all the issue of compensation for their service, a hot button issue for veterans in the midst of the Great Depression. The lack of attention to this issue lead to the Bonus Army March in 1932, as depicted in the next exhibit.

 

“Shacks, put up by the Bonus Army on the Anacostia flats, Washington D.C.”, photo (1932)

This 1932 photograph depicts the burning of the Bonus Army’s camp in Washington D.C., with the U.S. Capitol Building in the distance. The Bonus Army was a group of thousands of veterans, affected by the Great Depression and disillusioned by the government, who marched in Washington D.C. in 1932, demanding their earned compensation for fighting in World War I.  In 1924, Congress passed the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, which delayed payments for service to 1945, a date too far in the future for struggling and poor veterans of the Great Depression. Protests broke out the day after a vote to push the date of compensation earlier failed in Congress. While the march was peaceful and the Hooverville in which the marchers camped was orderly, Hoover ordered police and then Army intervention to disperse protesters from Washington and from their campsite on the banks of the Anacostia River. The use of military intervention against veterans was a political disaster for Hoover and contributed to his loss in the 1932 presidential election. This March also propelled the passage of the “Bonus Bill” in 1936, a measure that allowed veterans to immediately cash in the government bond certificates that served as compensation for their service.

 

Adjusted Compensation Payment Act (1936)

Special to the New York Times. “Bonus Bill Becomes Law; Repassed in Senate, 76-19; Payment Will Be Speeded.” New York Times, Jan 28, 1936, pp. 1.

The Adjusted Compensation Payment Act, against the veto of President Roosevelt, was passed on January 27, 1936. This piece of legislation, nicknamed the “Bonus Bill” got rid of the delayed cash payout of government bonds awarded to veterans of World War I for their service. The Bonus Bill of 1924, officially known as the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, had delayed cash payouts of bond certificates to 1945, when veterans in the midst of the Great Depression were struggling immensely. Roosevelt vetoed the bill originally because he thought it afforded aid to a group of people not based on demonstrated need. Roosevelt saw this not as an issue of veterans’ rights but an issue of fairness. Veterans’ groups and the VA assured Roosevelt they would persuade veterans to not cash their bonds until 1945, like the 1924 act mandated, but many veterans did not wait until then and instead cashed out at the first available date to help themselves and their struggling families. Issues of compensation would be built into the 1944 G.I. Bill, avoiding such issues in the aftermath of World War II.

 

Notes

[1]Daniel Amsterdam,  “Before the Roar: U.S. Unemployment Relief after World War I and the Long History of a Paternalist Welfare Policy.” Journal of American History, Volume 101, Issue 4, 1 March 2015, Pages 1123–1143

World War II

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (1944)

Robert Clover, “FDR Signs G.I. Bill 1944” Associated Press

The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, was a landmark bill that provided returning servicemen and women with government-backed loans, a college or vocational education and a monthly stipend. Other services such as job counseling and unemployment benefits were also made available. All veteran-related issues were placed under the purview of Veterans’ Administration, with former General Omar Bradley, an architect of the D-Day invasion, at its helm.  In World War II, the majority of returning soldiers were “citizen soldiers” who would require assistance in acclimating back into civilian life after their service. In order to preemptively provide solutions for this coming adjustment, the G.I. Bill was passed in 1944, weeks after the Normandy Landings on D-Day, long before the bulk of troops came home from Europe and the Pacific. After the unemployment issue following World War I and the Bonus Army debacle, the government realized its mistakes of not providing adequate services returning servicemen and this was their solution. Government backed loans for houses, cars, businesses and farms gave veterans the chance to start a new life for themselves and eventually their families. The upward mobility made possible by loans was bolstered by the option for a veteran to attend college tuition-free with a monthly stipend, depending on length and place of service. Thanks to the G.I. Bill, one-in-eight returning veterans attended college, nearly 2.2 million people, many of whom otherwise would not have had such an opportunity [1]. Despite the unprecedented economic growth, it only mostly affected white male veterans. The local administration of the G.I. Bill meant African American veterans were largely excluded from receiving benefits and excluded from many higher education institutions. Segregation and “separate but equal” were still very much in place at home after World War II, even after black and white veterans alike spent years fighting for freedom and democracy abroad.

 

He Has Seen War, documentary (2011)

Through interviews with surviving members of the famed Easy Company of the 101st Airborne Division, dramatized in HBO’s Band of Brothers, and members of various regiments of the First Marine Division, featured in HBO’s The Pacific and their families, veterans of World War II, directly impacted by the passage of the G.I. Bill discuss their experience returning from the war and readjusting to life at home and how their experiences affected their loved ones. The documentary touches on topics such as physical and mental disabilities as a result of service, the overall transition from soldier to civilian and the role the government played in the transition. Many veterans featured in the series, all white, went to college and bought homes under the G.I. Bill and went on to have successful careers, but continued to be haunted by their time in Europe or the Pacific. For most, memories of their time in the Army or Marines plagued their lives and affected their family life. The end of the documentary delves into the importance of reunions for the men, as they provided a form of therapy for men who generally remained silent about their service in their everyday lives and continued the brotherhood formed on the battlefield. He Has Seen War provides a comprehensive look at the real-life effects of the G.I. Bill and the effect of combat in general on homecoming veterans of World War II.

 

China Marine, book by E.B. Sledge (2002)

Image result for china marine book

E.B. Sledge’s posthumously published memoir details his experience in China in the six months following the end of World War II and experience adjusting to civilian life thereafter. Sledge was a mortarman in the famed First Marine Division and he experienced combat mainly during the Battles of Peleliu and Okinawa. While he sustained no physical wounds, one of a handful in his unit to escape such a fate, the war haunted him for decades after the war. Upon returning home to Mobile, Alabama in February 1946, Sledge took advantage of the G.I. Bill and went onto become an esteemed biology professor at the University of Montevallo. The latter half of the book details his recovery from PTSD type symptoms such as nightmares and reliving his experiences, symptoms also suffered by scores of veterans featured in John Huston’s documentary, Let There Be Light. While not as famous as his combat memoir, With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa, China Marine tells the story of recovery and returning home from a life-changing war, an experience common among veterans of World War II.

 

Let There Be Light, documentary (1946)

Let There Be Light on Netflix USA

At the direction of the Army, right after the end of World War II, director John Huston was tasked with creating a film about the treatment of veterans at a VA hospital in Long Island, New York. As his final assignment for the Army, Let There Be Light covered the treatment of a group of veterans from their arrival at the hospital to their integration back into society as a civilian and recovery. Rather than physical afflictions, these men suffered from what today is called PTSD, but was then called “battle fatigue” and “psycho-neurosis.” Huston depicts sessions of talk therapy as a course of treatment to return men to their pre-war selves. This film was an acknowledge of mental illness faced by veterans, a topic rarely discussed. So rarely discussed, that the release of the film was suppressed by the War Department, as it portrayed the experience of combat as a negatively transformative. Let There Be Light was finally released to the public in 1981. Strides made in the treatment of mentally afflicted veterans in the 1940s was a step in the right direction, leading to the 1981 addition of PTSD to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Let There Be Light, Netflix (2017)

 

Notes

[1] John  Bound and Sarah Turner, “Going to War and Going to College: Did World War II and the G.I. Bill Increase Educational Attainment for Returning Veterans?,” Journal of Labor Economics 20, no. 4 (October 2002): 785.

Cold War

“Nov 11 Becomes Veterans’ Day,” New York Times, May 25, 1954

Signing of HR7786, June 1, 1954, this ceremony changed Armistice Day to Veterans Day. U.S. Army Center for Military History

Beginning in 1919, November 11 was celebrated as Armistice Day, to mark the end of World War I, which took place the year prior at 11:11am. It became a national holiday in 1938 and in 1954, under President Dwight Eisenhower, it was officially renamed Veterans’ Day. As mentioned in the news clipping, the holiday was now meant to celebrate veterans of World War I, World War II and the Korean War. This clipping demonstrated Senate approval of and the national significance of veterans and their place in American culture, even if the government was not or had not been in a place to provide for them in way they should or should have. The short length of the clipping, however, does denote the little attention paid to veterans at this time as the U.S. was engulfed in the Cold War and was at the height of the Red Scare. In later conflicts, the celebration of Veterans’ Day would become more important and even more politicized, especially during the Vietnam War, as it was a day to protest the war, as done by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, or to protest the war’s protesters.

 

Amzie Moore Letter to the Veterans’ Administration (1961)

Moore’s 1961 letter to the Veterans’ Administration details his request to raise the government’s help with his loan payments. The letter mentions that his work hours were cut speculatively due to his involvement in African-American voter registration efforts in his hometown of Cleveland, Mississippi. Despite this, he still had loan payments to make on his house. This letter is a comment on the fact that even though the G.I. Bill was not means or ability tested, there existed racial bias in the administration. Technically, anyone who served long enough was eligible for benefits, but the local administration of these benefits meant African Americans were largely excluded, especially in the South. This letter also comments on the type of work available to African Americans at the time, despite Moore’s status as a veteran of World War II. Just like his fellow white servicemen, Moore simply wanted to maintain his life and home, a feat he was unable to meet due to his race and circumstances. 

Vietnam War

Brothers in War, documentary (2014)

Image result for brothers in war netflix

promotional poster, National Geographic

Reph’s documentary Brothers in War, details the exploits of Charlie Company, 4th Battalion, 47th Infantry of the Army’s 9th Infantry Division, one of the last units to train and serve together in Vietnam, also a unit made up almost entirely of draftees. Subsequent draftees were drafted into existing units, as opposed to the members of Charlie Company who remained a unit from training to combat to returning home. The final ten minutes of the film document, through oral interviews, home videos and photos, the experience of the men when their one-year tour of duty ended in 1968. The veterans recall feeling almost ashamed of their service as they arrived in the U.S. and were greeted by the belligerence of anti-war protesters, complicated by the fact that most of them had not chosen to go in the first place. Due to this stigma, many remember simply never discussing the war or their service, as many at home were not open to hearing about it. This documentary remarks on the hostility towards veterans following their return from Vietnam, a sharp departure from the homecomings of World War I and II, as seen in the poster, Welcome home our gallant boys, and the documentary, He Has Seen War.

Brothers in War, Netflix (2014)

 

John Kerry, “Statement Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee” (1971)

As a representative of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Kerry was called before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in proceedings known as the Fulbright Hearings in April 1971. His testimony began with a summary of the Winter Soldier Investigation, a media event in which veterans described in detail their conduct or conduct they witnessed while in Vietnam that were war crimes. The object of the investigation was to show a systematic acceptance of such violence by the military, that made atrocities commonplace actions, not isolated incidents. In the vein of that investigation, Kerry summarized his testimony as a duty to speak out against what he and others did in Vietnam as a measure to balance the hypocrisy he felt by the U.S. government in its conduct in Vietnam. Kerry also argued that the war was a civil war, not just a domino in danger of falling to communism. Even though hundreds of other VVAW members were in the audience, Kerry received substantial backlash, especially from other veterans, for this speech, at the time and later in his political career, for disparaging the reputation of veterans who did not participate in atrocities. This hearing details the lengths to which veterans wished to be heard by the government, all in the spirit of transparency regarding personal conduct.

 

Born on the Fourth of July, book by Ron Kovic (1976)

Image result for born on the fourth of july book 1976

1976 Edition

Kovic’s memoir Born on the Fourth of July details his idyllic childhood, growing up in Long Island suburbia at the start of the baby boom, to his service in Vietnam and finally his transformation and later involvement in Vietnam Veterans Against the War. During his service in 1965, Kovic was paralyzed from the waist down. This led to him spending months in a VA hospital, facing horrendous conditions and apathetic staff. His experience there and in Vietnam turned him into a cynic and left disillusioned as to America’s involvement in Vietnam. While experiencing a personal epiphany, he endured the challenges that come with being a paraplegic and undiagnosed sufferer of PTSD. His novel goes into great detail concerning his treatment as a disabled veteran and the government benefits he received as a result. Following witnessing a protest, while in college, he was drawn to the anti-war movement and eventually finds himself in Los Angeles and a part of the local chapter of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. This book goes into great detail about many aspects of the Vietnam veteran experience, from hospitals to parades to anti-war protests, demonstrating the power of warfare in changing the convictions of a person and almost breaking them.

 

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd Edition, complied by American Psychiatric Association (1980)

Image result for dsm 3

The fundamentals of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are as about as old as the experience of combat itself. Throughout history it underwent many name changes, as greater understanding of the disorder came to light. By the time of the Vietnam War, PTSD was beginning to be accepted by the psychiatric community. Studies done in the 1970s, in part, of Vietnam Veterans, legitimized this age-old disorder and gave it the national recognition it needed to help sufferers, not just veterans, seek treatment. Its addition to the DSM III marked a change in attitude towards PTSD as a disorder, allowing its diagnosis to carry less of a stigma, as it was more readily talked about in psychiatric communities and in VA hospitals.  The legitimizing of the disorder by the psychiatric community marked the culmination of the visibility of the treatment of PTSD, as shown in its infancy in Let There Be Light (released to the public the year following the release of the DSM-III) in the year following the end of World War II.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Adjusted Compensation Payment Act 49 U.S.C. § 32 (1936)

Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : DSM-3. Arlington, VA :American Psychiatric Publishing, 1980, p247-251. The Circumcision Reference Library. http://www.cirp.org/library/psych/ptsd/ (Accessed November 19, 2018).

Grant, Gordon. Jobs for fighters – If you need a job, if you need a man, inform the official central agency – The service is free The United States Employment Service, Bureau for Returning Soldiers and Sailors. Poster. Baltimore, New York: Thomsen-Ellis Co, 1919. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division https://www.loc.gov/item/2002712342/ (Accessed November 18, 2018).

Herzog, Mark. He Has Seen War. 2011; Los Angeles, CA: Herzog and Co, 2011. YouTube. Posted 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McKV4PqapO8 (Accessed November 18, 2018).

Huston, John, dir. Let There Be Light. 1946; Long Island, New York: U.S. Army Pictorial Services, 1980.

Kerry, John. “Statement Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.” Speech, Washington D.C., April 22, 1971. YouTube. Posted 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2280&v=ucY7JOfg6G4 (Accessed November 18, 2018).

Kovic, Ron. Born on the Fourth of July. New York. Akashic Books, 1976.

Moore, Amzie. Amzie Moore to Administrator of the Veterans Administration, April 12, 1961. In Freedom Summer Collection, http://content.wisconsinhistory.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15932coll2/id/21945 (Accessed November 18, 2018).

“Nov. 11 Becomes ‘Veterans Day’.” New York Times), May 25, 1954, pp. 4.

Reph, Liz. Brothers in War. 2014; Easton, PA and New York City, NY: Lou Reda Productions, 2014. 1:19.32- 1:28.00.

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act 58, U.S.C. § 268 (1944).

“Shacks, put up by the Bonus Army on the Anacostia flats, Washington, D.C., burning after the battle with the military. The Capitol in the background.” Photograph. Signal Corps Photographs of American Military Activity, 1754 – 1954; Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 – 1982; Record Group 111; National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=728 (Accessed November 18, 2018).

Sledge, E.B. China Marine. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2002.

Special to The New,York Times. “Veterans’ Bureaus United by Hoover.” New York Times, Jul 09, 1930, pp. 11.

Welcome home our gallant boys Peace, justice, liberty. Poster. Cincinnati, Ohio: Hennegan & Co., 1918. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3g09565/ (Accessed November 18, 2018).

 

Secondary Sources

Adler, Jessica. “‘The Service I Rendered Was Just as True’: African American Soldiers and Veterans as Activist Patients.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 5 (May 2017): 675–83.

Amsterdam, Daniel. “Before the Roar: U.S. Unemployment Relief after World War I and the Long History of a Paternalist Welfare Policy.” Journal of American History, Volume 101, Issue 4, 1 March 2015, Pages 1123–1143

Bound, John and Turner, Sarah, “Going to War and Going to College: Did World War II and the G.I. Bill Increase Educational Attainment for Returning Veterans?,” Journal of Labor Economics 20, no. 4 (October 2002): 784-815.

Craddock, Douglas, Jr. “War, Civil Rights, and Higher Education: African American Vietnam Veterans, the Civil Rights Era, and the G.I. Bill.” PhD diss. University of Alabama, 2002.

Gannon, Barbara A.. “‘They Call Themselves Veterans: Civil War and Spanish War Veterans and the Complexities of Veteranhood,” The University of North Carolina Press, no. 4 (2015): 528-550

Gelber, Scott. “A ‘Hard-Boiled Order’: The Reeducation of Disabled WWI Veterans in New York City.” Journal of Social History 39, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 161–80.

Hunt, Andrew. 1999. The Turning : A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. New York: New York University Press.. ProQuest Ebook Central.

Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides Committee, Board on the Health of Select Populations Staff, and Institute of Medicine. Veterans and Agent Orange : Update 2018. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2018. National Academy of Sciences, https://www.nap.edu/resource/25137/111318_VAO_2018_highlights.pdf (Accessed November 18, 2018).

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