War plays a major part in any country’s history, but America even more so than most. The United States has gone through their own fight for independence, civil war, and westward expansion. The foreign wars of the United States might be the most intriguing as they show a series of trends based on the motivation of the US. These motivations are also linked to certain responses that the US citizens and the government usually have.
The major wars that the United States have been involved in were the Spanish American War, World War I and II, as well as the Cold War, which caused the Korean and Vietnam wars. The Spanish American War and World War I are similar as the motivations of the United States were all about power. When the US brought the fight to Cuba, they were trying to expand their influence and start their expansionist journey. The United States was involved in World War I because they tried to grow their economic empire by trading with European nations at war. World War II was a transitional war in the sense that America never tried to get involved too heavily except for the cash and carry clause. The United States was attacked first by Japan and that is why they declared war. The Cold war wasn’t a country versus country conflict like a standard war. The United States and the Soviet Union were at odds, but the fighting happened in other countries and was about furthering either the spread of democracy or communism. Both the Korean and Vietnam Wars are reflections of that as the United States only got involved in order to stop the spread of communism in those countries (Foner, 2016.
The Spanish American War was the first of the foreign based wars for the US and it began and ended in 1898. The US saw an opportunity in Cuba as the Spanish had control, but Cuba had begun revolting. The United States hadn’t initiated any fighting until the USS Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor in Cuba(Berner, 2014, 107-154). There wasn’t any evidence as to who sank the ship, but the yellow journalism caused the Spanish to be blamed. The two nations were unable to sort out the issue and went into a quick war. The US would then try and restructure the Philippines, but they didn’t want the US to take over for the Spanish. The Philippine American war would begin as a result (Berner, 2014, 155-182). These two wars were based on a power search and an imperial desire despite the United States reluctance to call it imperialism. When World War I came around, the US was again after power, but not military power. The US tried to trade with the countries at war, like Britain, in order to keep their economy growing. The United States would be pulled into the fighting after Germany started sinking ships like the Lusitania in 1915. It wasn’t until 1917 that the United States actually entered the war as the Germans would resume their submarine activity in war territory despite their promise not to (Foner, 2016, 734-777). The United States desire for power brought them into both of these conflicts and even though it was a different type of power, it is easy to see how these alternate motives caused the US to get involved into both wars that didn’t originally concern them.
World War II was different from the other foreign wars. First of all, the United States passed the Neutrality Acts in the 1930’s in order to prevent a repeat of WWI. The acts were originally supposed to prevent trade with countries at war, but they passed legislation in the later acts that made it possibly under the “cash and carry” clause. The trade and the increasing desire to help the Allies against the Axis powers made it similar to World War I. The major difference was that the US got attacked first on their own territory. In every other foreign war, the fighting took place away from home, which made it easier for the people of the US to want to stay removed as it wasn’t their fight. When the US was attacked by Japan at Pearl Harbor that all changed and a near unanimous approval for a declaration of war reflects that change (Foner, 2016, 864-903).
The Cold War quickly followed the second World War, but the motivations for this conflict changed. This conflict with the Soviet Union was never fought in either country as the fight was focused on the spread of Communism. The Soviets wanted to support the growth of communism, while the United States wanted to keep Communism as limited as possible. The US started by funding countries like Greece and Turkey who were vulnerable and couldn’t be helped by Britain, who was decimated after WWII. Internally the US had a mass anti-communist feeling spread as the country was paranoid both because of the Soviets and because of Senator McCarthy who spread false allegations. They then transitioned their focus to Asia as the Korean and Vietnam Wars would be a result of the fight against communism (Offner 2011).
The Korean War and Vietnam wars were both very similar. Korea was divided into a communist north and a United States backed south just as in Vietnam. The United States jumped in after the communist north in both countries had begun their advances in order to claim the entire country and unite it (Benson, 2001,40-52) . The only difference in the trend of the war is that Korea was at least left half communist and half free in the end. Vietnam ended up being a far longer war, was lost as the whole country ended under the control of the communists, and a great deal of protests came up during the war at home against the draft, the war itself, and war crimes committed by the US (Davis 2008, 16-17,45).
The two trends of both motivation and at home responses are both linked as the country always responded favorably towards the war when American life was lost before the US entered the war. The war would have opposition when it didn’t directly affect the United States, or it seemed like an unreasonable war in many ways as with the Vietnam War. Overall, these wars created a century of American foreign policy and caused a great deal of change both good and bad as well as at home and abroad.
Spanish American War
Platform of the Anti-Imperialist League
The Anti-Imperialist League Formed in 1898 as the United States was getting involved in foreign countries, more specifically in Cuba. There was an anti-Spanish uprising in Cuba that had been going on and the US sought to get involved as expansionists, not imperialists. The opening paragraph of the Anti-Imperialist platform gives their stance that uses the justification of defending liberty and that imperialism is “hostile to liberty and tends towards militarism”. The platform points out that the United States has always taken a position against the weak needing to submit to the strong as it pointed out that that the imperialists in the United States are making a miscalculation in regard to what happens after they take control of the Philippines’ government. The Anti-Imperialists also point out two other issues which are in reference to the consent of the governed and their right to stand against the United States as it intentionally creating a state of war, which seems to put the country in danger. While in Cuba the United States was able to gain domestic support thanks to the sinking of the USS Maine and the yellow journalism that pinned it on the Spanish. When it came to the Philippines, however, the local nationalists would prove that they didn’t want the Spanish control, but they certainly didn’t want the United States to take over after. The United States unwanted presence resulted in the three-year conflict that was the Philippine-American War.
“Imperialists assume that with the destruction of self-government in the Philippines by American hands, all opposition here will cease. This is a grievous error. Much as we abhor the war of “criminal aggression” in the Philippines, greatly as we regret th at the blood of the Filipinos is on American hands, we more deeply resent the betrayal of American institutions at home. The real firing line is not in the suburbs of Manila. The foe is of our own household. The attempt of 1861 was to divide the country. That of 1899 is to destroy its fundamental principles and noblest ideals.”
Link to full document-http://envoy.dickinson.edu:2641/eds/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=b6801344-8b44-4fa6-acfe-d7817251948f%40sessionmgr4008&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=21213240&db=pwh
The USS Maine Aftermath
The USS Maine was an American battleship sent to Cuba in February of 1898 after riots had broken out the last month. Cuba, at that time, was under the control of the Spanish and the riots had been a violent protest against that Spanish control. The USS Maine was sunk the same month it had arrived, and the blame was put on the Spanish by the US public. The video was taken after the wreck and shows the product of the mine that destroyed the ship, killed around 260 Americans, and destroyed other smaller vessels around it. The Spanish American War was the first US war to be documented by motion picture cameras as William Paley was sent to record a few bits about the Maine like The Wreck of the Battleship “Maine” and the Burial of the “Maine” Victims. The film also includes the panoramic view of the harbor which it sank. The attack would end up being a catalyst for the Spanish American War as well as for American expansionism. Regardless of whether or not the Spanish did sink the ship, the relationship between the two had been damaged and they were unable to resolve the issue, leading to the war. The war was not long, but the mine sinking the USS Maine caused public support for a fight against the Spanish and would lead to the American involvement in the Philippines. These wars also ended up giving a charge to the Anti-Imperialist league.
Newspaper After the USS Maine
With the sinking of the USS Maine in February of 1898, relations with the Spanish were tarnished as many people, public newspapers included, pointed the finger at the Spanish. The two countries were unable to resolve the conflict and in March of the same year, war seemed inevitable. At the time of the conflict war was about to be declared despite President McKinley seemingly working to resolve the conflict before war were to break out. Newspapers played a large role in both pointing the finger at the Spanish despite there not being any evidence, as well as gaining public support. The March 26th, 1898 version of The Call are an example of how these newspapers phrased their articles in order to do so. Some, who blamed the Spanish, took part in yellow journalism which is based on emotion and a degree of exaggerating the truth. The Call wasn’t quite that as it didn’t over play anything, but instead reported what Americans would want to hear about their country like McKinley’s attempt at peace and the lack of backing for Spain back in Europe. It was easy to take the stance of the newspaper after the mass support the yellow journalism caused and the response to the USS Maine. The conflict in Cuba didn’t last long, but it was a stepping stone for US expansionism and a desire for power which were roots for both the US imperial conquests and in WWI.
World War I
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The United States was taking a neutral approach to World War I and wasn’t getting involved militarily. They were, however, still involved in trading with the countries at war as they were still trying to keep expanding their already growing economy. In early May of 1915, after attempts by the Britain and Germany to blockade one another from trading with the US, Germany sank the Lusitania a year after declaring unrestricted submarine warfare. The ocean liner contained munitions for the British, but it also had American citizens onboard. Three of these citizens were men from Tacoma and that is what the Tacoma Times publication from May 7, 1915 is addressing. The cover page included information on the ship and its original plan, as well as information on the Tacomans who were aboard. The action by the Spanish caused the United States to challenge the submarine policy of the Germans. They would apologize and promise to end their unrestricted submarine policy. The result was the United States having to eventually enter the war after the Germans resumed their submarine activity and sunk the Housatonic. The US readied for war and, after an overwhelming vote in Congress, the United States entered WWI. They helped the Allied countries to emerge victorious. The economic ambition of the US had been an original cause for them to enter the war and one of the other results of the sunken US ships would be the Neutrality Acts, which were created to prevent a repeat incident.
Woodrow Wilson’s Request for War
When World War I broke out after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the United States was not involved and didn’t plan on doing so, at least militarily. The US had been trading with European nations involved in World War I. Germany and Britain had taken a particular attempt to cut one another off from US trade, but Germany made the mistake of using force and sinking ships. They sunk a British ocean liner, the Lusitania, which resulted in over 1,000 deaths, 128 of which were American. The sinking of the Lusitania was in 1915 and Woodrow Wilson and the US didn’t enter the war until 1917 after President Wilson requested entry into the war in April of that year. Wilson’s request to Congress was presented as not a fight against Germany, but a fight for mankind and human rights. He makes the claim about fighting for humanity after starting his speech with a direct address to German submarine warfare, the ships they’ve sunk and the men they’ve killed. The final straw was when a German U-boats sank the Housatonic. One of the most important aspects of the speech is his pointing out of neutrality. The country had been practicing military neutrality when it came to the war, but, according to Wilson, “neutrality is no longer feasible” when the Central Powers were a threat to the peace and freedom for all. The comment from Wilson as well as the actions from the US to the request war would have a further affect. One of them being the entry into the war, but it would lead to the three Neutrality acts of the 1930’s where the country took steps to prevent the same cause for entry into a great war as they saw the rise of the Nazis and Fascism.
“The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind. It is a war against all nations. American ships have been sunk, American lives taken in ways which it has stirred us very deeply to learn of; but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same way. There has been no discrimination. The challenge is to all mankind.”
Link to document- http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/21-world-war-i/woodrow-wilson-requests-war-april-2-1917/
Wake Up America Poster
After Wilson’s request for war, the feeling about neutrality started to shift both in Congress and in the public. The vote in the House of Representatives was 373-50 and the Wake-up America poster is just one example of America trying to get further support for the war efforts. As with the Spanish-American war, when there is a loss of American life the cause for war always gains more backing. The poster is asking America and all of its’ people to literally wake up and realize what is at stake. The Wake-up America poster came out a few years into the war after two years of sinking American trade vessels but calls for a support and protection of civilization. The woman is depicting America and liberty by wearing the flag and it aligns with America trying to become an international powerhouse. The reason they were dragged into the war and away from neutrality was because of their economic goals. The Spanish-American war was caused by an external quest for influence so the poster, having the American Flag reflect all of liberty and civilization, speaks to the growing feeling of both war time pride and the strength America feels they have or could gain. America would help win the war for the Allies but would not be a part of the Treaty of Versailles as they were divided over the treaty and the promoted revision that Senator Lodge requested. The lack of involvement was seen as a cause for WWII as Germany was dismantled under the treaty.
World War II
Neutrality Act of 1935
Leading in to World War Two, America had a growing Isolationist movement. These were people who believed that the cause for involvement in the First World War was due to greedy businessmen who had interests in Europe. They also thought that that America needed to stay away from future wars and needed to avoid financial deals with countries at war in order to avoid war. The United States adopted three different neutrality acts throughout the 1930’s which were sparked by the growing tensions in Europe and Asia. The country wanted to prevent being dragged into another world war, so Congress passed the first Neutrality Act in 1935. The goal of the act was to keep the United States from exporting “arms, ammunition, and implements of war to belligerent countries”. President Roosevelt didn’t support the act himself, but, due to the support from Congress and the public, he gave in. The Neutrality Act of 1937 would prohibit U.S citizens from traveling on belligerent ships and from bringing arms to belligerent nations. As events towards war, such as the expanding German territory, Roosevelt and Congress agreed to expand the “cash and carry” clause, that had been used to support the countries against the Axis powers, to arms as well. The intent of the neutrality acts was supposed to keep the US from trading with belligerent nations but added clauses to allow the trade with these countries. Military neutrality was still the approach until the United States were attacked by Japan at Pearl Harbor in December of 1941.
“Providing for the prohibition of the export of arms, ammunition, and implements of war to belligerent countries; the prohibition of the transportation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war by vessels of the United States for the use of belligerent states; for the registration and licensing of persons engaged in the business of manufacturing, exporting, or importing arms, ammunition, or implements of war; and restricting travel by American citizens on belligerent ships during war.”
Link to full document-http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=4057
America First Speech
World War II had been going on for approximately two years and, as a result, interventionalists were rising and trying to push for the United States to get involved. Charles Lindberg’s speech was coming after the Axis powers had just attacked Yugoslavia and as Germany was about to attack Russia through Operation Barbarossa. The war didn’t look winnable for the Allies as France had already signed an armistice with Germany. Lindberg points out that France was dragged into the war by their own interventionalists and it led to destruction across the country and a signed truce with Germany. The point of the speech wasn’t to dissuade the US from being involved in foreign affairs or even trying to gain international power. It was trying to get the United States to be “practical” and realize that, although the country should want to support Britain and the other allies, assisting in the war should only be done if it seems winnable. Lindbergh wants the United States to see that they had already been weakened by European wars before and that it makes more logical sense to focus inward instead of jumping into a very lopsided war. He goes on to claim that, even in an unprepared state, “the United States is better situated from a military standpoint than any other nation in the world” and that, with focus on their own defenses, “no foreign army will ever attempt to land on American shores.” The approach became unfeasible when Japan did come to American territory and attack. It took the US all of one day to declare war on the Empire of Japan and, at that point, there was no isolationist approach possible for the US.
“War is not inevitable for this country. Such a claim is defeatism in the true sense. No one can make us fight abroad unless we ourselves are willing to do so. No one will attempt to fight us here if we arm ourselves as a great nation should be armed. Over a hundred million people in this nation are opposed to entering the war. If the principles of democracy mean anything at all, that is reason enough for us to stay out. If we are forced into a war against the wishes of an overwhelming majority of our people, we will have proved democracy such a failure at home that there will be little use of fighting for it abroad.”
Link to full document- http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/charles-a-lindberghs-address-in-new-york/
Pearl Harbor Address
Relations between the United States and Japan hadn’t been great leading up to WWII. Japan, as an Island country, relies on trade and the United States’ open-door policy concerning trade with China caused frustration with Japan. Japan also made territorial gains in China as their aggression grew, but America, as a country attempting to stay removed from wars that are not their own, wouldn’t get involved militarily. The US was, however, refusing to acknowledge or accept the territorial gains of Japan, which the Empire of Japan took personally. Then, in 1940, Japan allied with Germany, which put the US at further odds with Japan despite the US trying not to get involved in World War II. So, with Japan’s economic struggles and desire for control in the Pacific, Japan attack Pearl Harbor as well as making a series of other moves like in Guam and Hong Kong. President Roosevelt referred to Pearl Harbor as “a date which will live in infamy”. The United States had been trying to negotiate peace with Japan and the US was still in these negotiations with the Japanese Ambassador until about an hour before the attack where the Ambassador claimed it to be “useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations”. The US was blindsided by the attack and, as in all foreign wars the US has been involved in, when American lives are lost the United States takes immediate action. WWII was unique as it was the first attack on US soil by a foreign country for quite some time and Congress’ vote reflected that as the Senate voted unanimously, 82-0, for war, while the House of Representatives voted 388-1. War was declared against Japan the day after Pearl Harbor.
The Cold War
Joseph McCarthy on Communism
The Cold War began quickly after World War II as President Truman took over for Franklin Roosevelt after his assassination. President Roosevelt had grown strong relations with Stalin, but Truman, through a few major errors and a lack of knowledge, was unable to maintain the relationship as tensions both between Russia and the United States, as well as Democracy and Communism. The unusual war contained issues both internationally and domestically for the United States. Joseph McCarthy was a part of that domestic issue as he furthered the already growing fear of communism in the US. Senator McCarthy does two things to increase the fear as well as the growing anxiety within the United States and they are both represented in his Wheeling, West Virginia speech in 1950. The first, and most notable, was the unsupported accusations where he would point or accuse members of the government or the military of being communist. In the Wheeling speech he claimed to have a list of 205 names “that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party” but are still in the State Department. He also pushes the idea of a split world into “a time of “the cold war””. He seemingly tried to cause further aggression or push for aggression against the Soviets and other communist nations. McCarthy caused many to put thrown into jail yet very few were guilty of anything. The end result was a mass state of paranoia and a United States consumed by Anti-Communism.
“”The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores . . . but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this Nation. It has not been the less fortunate, or members of minority groups who have been traitorous to this Nation, but rather those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest Nation on earth has had to offer . . . the finest homes, the finest college education and the finest jobs in government we can give.”
Link to full document-http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456)
On the international scale, the President Truman and the United States had made it a goal to aid the countries vulnerable to communism. Many of the countries who were vulnerable were either in economic struggles or were left in a difficult place after WWII. Britain was one of those countries shattered by the war and they could no longer help any of the struggling European nations. Two of the most important nations losing the financial and military aid were Greece and Turkey. The Truman Doctrine was President Truman’s request for the aid of the vulnerable countries and, in particular, the aid of Greece and Turkey. In the speech he points out the two countries in need as well as the two ways of that “nearly every nation much choose between”. They were, essentially, democracy and communism, but Truman is pointing out that the United States must now step up and lead both the development of the United Nations as well as the right for the countries to choose their way of life. It was to be the job of the US to fight for the free people, mainly through economic aid, as the countries need economic stability to go hand in hand with political stability. Ultimately the Cold War would lead to longer than a 40-year struggle, which would include both the Vietnam and Korean wars. These two wars would cause both military losses for the United States as well as internal protests to the Vietnam war.
“At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.
The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.”
Link to full document-http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp
Map of Korea During the War
Korea, initially a Japanese territory, was divided into North and South Korea following World War II. The foundation of North Korea was supported by the Soviet Union making it a Communist nation, while South Korea was funded and assisted by the United States. In the summer of 1950, North Korea sent an attack to cross the 38th Parallel, the dividing latitude line between the two Koreas, in multiple sections. The goal was to reach the capital of Seoul just a few days later. Seoul would fall as North Korea, who knew the land far better than the United States military advisors present, were able to use tanks despite the belief of the advisors. The map shows a mountainous terrain, which is why the US believed that tanks wouldn’t be a feasible way for the communist North Koreans to attack. The map also shows each major fight that occurred, including the crossing of the 38th parallel and the invasion of Seoul. It also shows the trends of the war which included attacks near the 38th parallel as well as US attacks in North Korea. The war was ended in 1953 after the US and China mediated the armistice. South Korea would gain a small amount of land, but the 38th parallel would become a demilitarized zone that works as a buffer between the two nations.
Truman on the Situation in Korea
President Truman was serving in his second term when the Korea situation arose. In June of 1950, North Koreas attack on South Korea was aimed at unifying the entire peninsula under communist rule. North Korea had a large portion of the country under its’ control when Truman requested that the United Nations approve the use of military support for South Korea. Almost a month after the initial attack and request from the United Nations, Truman sent a message to Congress and made a public comment about that message. The message concerned the upcoming conflict and its’ origins as Truman was trying to explain the why the United States need to get involved. President Truman pointed out the background of the country and the original plan for the United Nations to establish the entire peninsula of Korea as a “free and independent nation. The Soviet Union was in opposition as the “Soviet Union refused to permit an election for this purpose to be held in the norther part” as they didn’t want to give up their control or influence in Korea. Truman states that “the cost of freedom is high”, but in order to maintain that freedom, no cost is too great. The war would not be a win as the entire peninsula wasn’t controlled by either side, however it would lead to the Vietnam war which posed a great deal more issues than Korea did.
“The attack upon Korea was an outright breach of the peace and a violation of the Charter of the United Nations. By their actions in Korea, Communist leaders have demonstrated their contempt for the basic moral principles on which the United Nations is founded. This is a direct challenge to the efforts of the free nations to build the kind of world in which men can live in freedom and peace.”
Link to full document-https://www.historyonthenet.com/authentichistory/1946-1960/2-korea/1-overview/19500719_President_Truman_on_The_Situation_in_Korea.html
Vietnam Veterans Against the War
The Vietnam war seemed quite similar to the Korean war as it was an Asian country divided into a communist north and an America back south. Vietnam was the largest part of the Cold war in which a great deal of life was lost, and the North Vietnam won the war by gaining control of the entire country. One of the major issues with the war was the loss of life and yes American troops were losing their lives, but many of the soldiers had an issue with the large number of Vietnamese civilians dying. There was an estimated two million civilian’s dead from both sides of the war. John Kerry represented a large number of Vietnam veterans in his recount of the war and the cause of civilian deaths. Kerry referred to the Winter Soldier Investigation as he and other soldiers told stories about the awful things they did to the people of Vietnam. To the understanding of Kerry and the people he represented, the war had no real value to America as “nothing in South Vietnam which could happen that realistically threatens the United States of America.” The people in Vietnam didn’t even care much about the war as they just wanted rid of the “colonial influence” and have the ability to work without “helicopters strafing them and bombs with napalm burning their villages and tearing their country apart. The message came just two years before the United States withdrew their troops in 1973 and four years before the fighting in Vietnam concluded in 1975.
“They told stories that at times they had personally raped, cut off ears, cut off heads, taped wires from portable telephones to human genitals and turned up the power, cut off limbs, blown up bodies, randomly shot at civilians, razed villages in fashion reminiscent of Ghengis Khan, shot cattle and dogs for fun, poisoned food stocks, and generally ravaged the countryside of South Vietnam in addition to the normal ravage of war and the normal and very particular ravaging which is done by the applied bombing power of this country.”
Link to full document-http://envoy.dickinson.edu:2643/eds/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=789477b2-d8a5-4fdf-9954-9545cab8466f%40sessionmgr102&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=21213382&db=pwh
Tinker v. Des Moines Iowa Independent Community School District
The larger domestic battle that the Vietnam war brought was from the younger generation. The new left rose out of the war and protested both the war and the draft. The new left was headed by college students especially in terms of the active movements taking place. Mary Beth Tinker wasn’t in college but was a junior high girl who wore black armbands with other students to protest the war. The school suspended the students until they agreed to remove the black armbands, but they would go on to wear black clothing after their agreement. The fight that occurred isn’t about the war itself but is a byproduct of it as the case was brought before the Supreme Court. Justice Fortas would provide the opinion of the court as they ruled 7-2 in favor the students. The students gained the right to protest as the First Amendment Right of speech and expression were protected. Fortas declared that “it can hardly be argued that either students or teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.” The case provided more clarity to the first amendment and how far it expands, but it also gives a further insight into just how important the war was. The new left was just the start as with their marches, college protests, and the Tinker case prove the wide spread affect that those who opposed the longest military engagement of the time would have in the US.
“The District Court recognized that the wearing of an armband for the purpose of expressing certain views is the type of symbolic act that is within the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment.”
Link to full document-http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep393/usrep393503/usrep393503.pdf
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Davis, Andrew. The Vietnam War. California: Classroom Complete Press, 2008. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/dickinson/reader.action?docID=1883259&query=
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