1. “Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace.” Perpetual peace is not a realistic goal, nor is it a useful one. Fascism holds that problems and conflicts can only be ultimately solved by war, and that all other solutions to problems are only substitutes for war. War is not necessary detrimental, and pacifists have unrealistic world views.
2. “…Fascism [is] the complete opposite of…Marxian Socialism, the materialist conception of history of human civilization can be explained simply through the conflict of interests among the various social groups and by the change and development in the means and instruments of production…. Fascism, now and always, believes in holiness and in heroism; that is to say, in actions influenced by no economic motive, direct or indirect.” Economics have little bearing on the history of man. History cannot be explained by social and economic issues or differences between estates and classes. Class warfare has no real effect on politics and conflict and cannot be the primary mechanism for change in society.
3. “After Socialism, Fascism combats the whole complex system of democratic ideology, and repudiates it, whether in its theoretical premises or in its practical application. Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society; it denies that numbers alone can govern by means of a periodical consultation, and it affirms the immutable, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never be permanently leveled through the mere operation of a mechanical process such as universal suffrage….” Fascism maintains that the majority cannot be held to be correct based solely on the fact that it is the majority. Universal suffrage is a useless practice, since the majority opinion does not matter. Not all individuals are equal, and therefore cannot have equal political standing; Fascism outright denies the democratic principles of political equality and perpetual progress.
1. Why is it that fascism and socialism are thought of as being related by many people, when in actuality they are opposites?
2. Why does Fascism get its name from ancient Rome, the government of which is the inspiration for many of the world’s modern democracies?
“…The Fascist accepts life and loves it, knowing nothing of and despising suicide: he rather conceives of life as duty and struggle and conquest, but above all for others — those who are at hand and those who are far distant, contemporaries, and those who will come after…” Mussolini’s definition of fascism includes the stipulation that the Fascist despises suicide and knows nothing of it, yet Adolf Hitler, one of the foremost fascists in history, took his own life.