Giuseppe Mazzini: On Nationality

Giuseppe Mazzini wrote about what the essential characteristics of nationality are and what that means. He reasoned that nationality is more than just common ideas, beliefs and history. “The question there is now, above all, to establish better relations between labour and capital, between production and consumption, between workman and the employer” (Mazzini, 1). He believes that labor is assigned by god for the people to share. It is this labor that gives man the rights he has as a member of society.… Read the rest here

Consequences of Industrialization

In H. Heine’s “The Silesian Weavers” he writes “A curse on this lying father-nation where thrive only shame and degradation, where every flower’s plucked ere it’s bloom and worms thrive in the dank rot and gloom- we’re weaving, we’re weaving!”

This passage exemplifies the poor working class man’s view of the industrial revelation. I chose this passage because it is a curse to the father-nation that is taking advantage of the these workers. The passage shows the feelings of hopelessness and anger that these people had towards their nation.… Read the rest here

French Nationalism

Nationalism is a feeling of pride or patriotism to one’s country, it is the effort of an individual to attach their identity to their country. Nationalism was vital to the success of the French Revolution. Being united by history, a common language and customs made it possible for the French to stick together instead of tearing their nation apart. In Halsall’s introduction to Herder’s “Materials for the Philosophy of the History of Mankind”, he says that “people are not ‘naturally’ aware that they belong to a nation in the sense that they might be aware they belong to a family, clan, village, town, or locality.” A nation has larger boundaries and the people who belong to it will go to great lengths to not only define these boundaries but also to protect them.… Read the rest here

Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791

Olympe de Gouge tests the Declaration of the Rights of Man with her own Declaration of the Rights of Woman. She questions what benefits woman gained from the Revolution. When “man” became free from the Revolution, he turned injustice onto woman. Woman were treated as though inferior, French legislators taking the position that there was nothing in common between men and women. De Gouge encourages women to stand up against this false superiority and unite to gain the rights women deserve.… Read the rest here

What is Enlightenment?

Enlightenment happens when one frees himself from the shackles of society thinking for the masses and one thinks for oneself. Once one frees oneself, the mind is open to question the world for oneself and search to find answers- more than one. Immanuel Kant believed that Enlightenment was a “man’s release from his self- incurred tutelage”. This means that to be open to enlightenment, man must relieve himself from relying on others to think for him.… Read the rest here