The Proclamation of the Irish Republic

Authors: The Proclamation was written by 7 men: Thomas J. Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada,Thomas MacDonagh, P. H. Pearse, Éamonn Ceannt, James Connolly, and Joseph Plunkett.  Thomas Clarke, the most influential of the 7, was a extreme revolutionary, borderline terrorist.

Context:  Written in 1916, in the middle of World War I, the Irish rose up in the Easter Rising.  In which, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a devout faction to Irish Independence.

Language:  The document uses simple diction, as it was to be read to the masses.  … Read the rest here

Mrs Beeton’s Book of Household Management

Author:  Isabella Beeton (March 12, 1836 – January 1865) started articles for her husband’s magazine when she was only 21 years old.  She died when she was only 28.  Her articles were later compiled as a book.

Context: Compiled in 1861, it was during the beginnings of the Second Industrial Revolution.  Additionally, Women’s rights were continuing to advance.

Language:  Beeton writes in relatively simple language in order to appeal to as many readers as possible.

Audience:  Beeton is writing to as many mothers/ wives as possible, additionally, the readers of her husband’s magazine.… Read the rest here

The White Man’s Burden

Author: It was written by Rudyard Kipling, a British imperialist.  He grew up in British India, thus he was able to experience imperialization first hand.

Context:  It was written in 1899 shortly after the United States too control of the Philippines.  During this time, many European nations were crambling to colonize as many territories to expand their markets.  The idea of the “White Man’s Burden” was a popular idea at the time and was sometimes used to justify a nation’s intercontinental expansion.… Read the rest here

Conspicuous Consumption

Author:  The piece was written by Thorstein Veblen, an American economist and sociologist.  He is well known for his thinking in the field, as he applied Darwinian theory to economic analysis.

Context:  Written in 1902, Veblen was writing in the midst of the second Industrial Revolution.  As the middle class began to surge, many previously lower class individuals were becoming more prosperous.  Veblen observes this phenomenon, thus he writes Conspicuous Consumption.

Language: Veblen’s tone is analytic, observant, and unromantic.  … Read the rest here

The Unification of Germany

Otto von Bismarck’s successful unification of Germany is one of the most important events in European history.  Unifying over thirty principalities and other smaller states within the geographical vicinity of modern day Germany is, by far, Otto von Bismarck’s greatest achievement.  Starting as a Prussian statesman, Bismarck eventually rose to the title of Minister President.  At this point, Bismarck was beginning to make his move to unify.  In 1866, he had the states of Germany attack Austria.… Read the rest here

The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx

The Communist Manifesto is the crowning achievement of Karl Marx.  The groundwork for the economic and social aspects of communism.  Marx, a German philosopher and economist was extremely discontent with the results of the industrial advancements made with capitalism.  As a reaction to the rise in capitalism, Marx created The Communist Manifesto.  The bourgeois continued to separate themselves from the working class economically due to the lack of attention paid to worker’s conditions, as well as extremely low wages.… Read the rest here

Wealth and Population

Adam Smith primarily focuses the relationship individuals have with one another in a capitalist society, which he describes within An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.  Adam Smith begins his inquiry with a look into the division of labor among a population.  Smith determines that the individuals are most productive when they do what they are best at, through their own discovery of his/her own talents and abilities.  With his pin-maker scenario, Smith’s provides an easy to understand example for his ideal working conditions.  … Read the rest here

Revolutionary Culture & Religion

As the French Revolution began to transition from phase one, the Liberal Revolution, to the Revolution of War, Terror, and the Rise of Republican France, culture was extremely effected. In La Marseillaise, written by laude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, he uses his song to call all citizens to arms to defend against “The roar of these savage soldiers” as
“They come right into our arms, To cut the throats of your sons, your country.”   La Marseillaiseis still the national Anthem of France, which is a prime example of how the cultural changes in the Revolution have made a lasting impact even to the present day.  … Read the rest here

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment is the release of individual’s opinions and expressions, or as Immanuel Kant puts it, “man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage.”  Kant states that since most of the population has submitted themselves to “guardians [that] have first made their domestic cattle dumb…” most of the population’s competence is therefore laden with “laziness and cowardice”.  If the masses are given freedom, “enlightenment is almost sure to follow”, in addition to the independent thinkers within an  society. … Read the rest here