The Shuwwaffa role in society has survived and has been transformed through urbanization in order to still serve an active function in a modern society. However, it is interesting that this niche was and still is prevalent even though these women are practicing magic in order to promote agency for women in a male dominated society.
The Shawaffat are categorized into four categories: spirit medium/seer, spirit medium/spell breaker and caster, cult leader/spirit possession healing, and “therapist.” The first three categories are roles of Shawaffa, which existed before in society, but the last one is a construction developed from modernity. All of these roles are meant to serve and help women afflicted with a variety of spirit related problems. This folk role of the Shuwwaffa is holding on to legitimacy because they are pursuing problems related to Jnun, which is mentioned in the Koran.
I find this interesting because they are using magic as a way to counteract the jinn, which could be perceived as witchcraft, a practice that is prohibited in normative religion. However, like the Hamadsha, becoming a Shawaffa is an elevation of status. This creates a double standard within this society where some women practicing magic are deemed a hindrance towards society (witch) or a symbol of women empowerment (Shawaffa). This leads me to believe that a Shuwwaffa is essentially an accepted form of witchcraft.
Regardless, the Shuwwaffat are a significant part of society even though they are arguably practicing a traditional taboo practice. Their response to modernity made these women innovate their roles through the use of advertisements, calling cards, and access to money. These innovations allow the Shawaffat to continue to be a functioning part in society.