December 5th, 2017 by dixonk

Mobility in the HR and CR

The Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival are both movements that literally moved outside of their regions of origin.  By focusing on the movement within the movement, one can understand the influence that the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance had on the societies.  W.B. Yeats and Claude McKay are two writers whose texts should be supported by other authors and poets of their time who did the same thing that they did by taking their texts and moving the movement.  The mobility within a movement is important to the success of that movement in regard to its impact on the culture it was intended for.  In order to understand this, we must look at more authors that took their work abroad during these movements.  Jean Toomer, Langston Hughes and others will be important in inspecting how much of an impact the movements had both domestically and internationally.


Question:  What impact did the Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival have on other cultures and how did mobility by the movement’s writers help the successes of these eras?

December 5th, 2017 by winslowo

Internal Criticism and Variances within the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance

The Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance are both social and literary movements centered around marginalized groups of regional and ethnic groups.  While the Celtic Revival was, in an entirely broad sense, an attempt to reclaim and reestablish a national Irish identity and create a meaningful connection to the land itself, the Harlem Renaissance was a collaboration of African-American peoples generating art and literature in response to generations of oppression.  The two movements have their similarities in that they, to some, are examples of “minor literature,” or a subset from the dominant cannon of literature in popular culture.  In terms of content though, each movement is unique and unparalleled by the other.  One major similarity within each movement is their respective writers had motives.  Writers may have had differing viewpoints or how those writers went about fulfilling their motives may have differed though.  The writers that I have chosen to highlight represent opposing viewpoints from within the same overall social movement.  W.B. Yeats, J.M. Synge, James Joyce, and Oscar Wilde all have ties to the Celtic Revival, whether it be one’s connection to the ancient mysticism of the land in Ireland such as Yeats, or another’s ideal of what a “celt” ought to be such as Synge.  Artists from the Harlem Renaissance exhibit more of a generational gap as to how the “negro” population should move forward and the juxtaposition of Alain Locke and Marcus Garvey beside Wallace Thurman and Langston Hughes makes this apparent.


Final Question:  I have a more concrete idea of how there was a generational gap between the artists I discuss in the Harlem Renaissance, but I am struggling to find real dichotomy with the celtic revival artists.  What trends do you see with the writes I have chosen?

December 5th, 2017 by Aliya Nichols


As an introduction to this anthology, I am presenting texts that investigate the power of silent protest during times of oppression and racial movements. It has come to my attention that aggression and violence have made its way into pop culture and media simulating that these are the proper responses to injustice. My belief on this stands firmly as it is: trying to attack violence with violence, whether that violence be verbal or physical, is not a valid method of parsing through oppression. I have paired the Harlem Renaissance with the Celtic Revival because it illuminates an interesting dynamic addressing the benefits of silent protest. I chose to include short stories, poetry and prose to portray the power of silent protest. I have found that the lasting effects of silent protest are prominent because they have a higher likelihood to reach a wider audience than blatant protest because it does not aggressively confront a particular group. I have found research that silent protest is a powerful form of fighting back: Glory Gatwiri and Karanja Mumbi’s article Silence as Power: Women Bargaining With Patriarchy in Kenya, argues how approaches of “silence can be used tactfully to renegotiate one’s position” (13). Celtic Revival authors such as W.B. Yeats and Jean Toomer paired with Harlem Renaissance authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Nella Larsen [insert three other HR authors here] have used silent protest in their works. My purpose of writing this anthology was to portray silence as a tactful form of power. I have carefully selected the authors listed above because they use creativity to shift the power dynamics of the oppressed while enhancing forms of subtlety to protest injustice.


Thesis: Silent protest is a tactful form of shifting the power dynamics of oppressed beings.

Question: Which other authors and/or texts that we have not discussed in class but are in the HRR should I incorporate in my anthology that do not directly address forms of racial injustice but use a story to subtly display racism/segregation/separation or inequality?

December 4th, 2017 by struzena

Introduction and Thesis

The literature of the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance both use prose and poetry to depict the desires of social and political change. Looking through the lens of sexuality between these two movements, attitudes towards sex and women are uncovered and represent the greater social beliefs towards gender equality at this time. Looking at male writers from the Harlem Renaissance, their depictions of women focalize on the female body. This form of objectification removes women’s agency in their sexuality. In contrast, female writers of the Harlem Renaissance illustrate women’s emotional range and self awareness, giving them control over their sexuality, highlighting desires of both gender and racial equality at this time. These two points of view depict the overall goal for social change from this movement to remove the stigma of African American sexuality. The Harlem Renaissance embraces sexuality, however, the works of female writers specifically, illustrate a progressive view of sexuality that represents gender equality and normalizes female desire. In contrast, Celtic Revival authors discretely write of sexuality in their works and focalize more on women’s roles in the suffragette movement. Thesis: Female Harlem Renaissance writers depict women’s sexaulity as an element of humanity, restoring agency, emotional depth, and ownership of their sexuality which contrasts with male writer’s objectifications of women which although celebrates sex, does not humanize women. In contrast, authors of the Celtic Revival refrain from sexuality altogether and focus on women’s involvement with the suffragette movements in Ireland. Overall, illustrating the disparities between the focuses of these two movements as the Celtic Revival focuses on political change and the Harlem Renaissance focuses on social change.

December 4th, 2017 by Becca Stout

Response to “An Evening with Solmaz Sharif”

“An Evening with Solmaz Sharif” was a wonderful opportunity because her writing is absolutely fascinating. Listening to a poet read their own work is always interesting because they emphasize different words than I would reading the same poem. I particularly enjoyed Sharif’s reading of the letters that she wrote because she changed her voice intonations to make it seem like the letters contained full sentences that were partially censored as opposed to just random words on the page. Whereas I had read those letters to try to find a message in the words she left on the page, she was more concerned with showing the silence of these interrupted thoughts. In addition to her talk, I liked her question and answer portion because of how open she was with her answers. She was brutally honest when answering questions such as when she claimed she does not cope with the suffering she and her family have lived with because of their heritage. Overall, I really enjoyed the event and found a new book of poetry to add to my (albeit fairly small) library.

December 4th, 2017 by Brian Nickless

Final Project Intro

The concept of alienation from society is found throughout both Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance literature. This rejection of the Irish by English society and rejection of African Americans by American Society fueled the need for these groups to create their own spaces in literature. These spaces became a place to move past their “othered” status and create art and dialogue necessary for alienated groups to retain their identity and sense of self. These movements and the works created during them were never solely defined by their rejection by their oppressor’s societies, but the concept of being rejected and othered was a concept frequently addressed and discussed. The colonized and enslaved translated the complex feelings of being rejected by a society forced upon them into powerful works that transcended the times and conditions they were created in. While no two literary movements are so uniform and neat as to be compared completely and fully to one another, both the Celtic Revival’s and Harlem Renaissance’s addressing of rejection can be seen in the works created during these movements. Despite the fact that the eventual creation of an independent Irish State would bring a nationalistic validation to the Celtic Revival that the Harlem Renaissance would not receive, in this anthology I would like to highlight how despite the differing end results of these spaces the two movements helped create, the means they achieved them were similar.


Question: Is the comparison of an identity driven movement resulting in nationhood (Celtic revival) to an identity driven movement that resulted in creating a distinct cultural space (Harlem Renaissance) compelling? Any authors belonging to either movement that I would be remiss in not mentioning in regard to this comparison?

December 4th, 2017 by hange

Creating Society at the End of Empire

The First World War and the time period around it had a transformative, profound effect on colonized peoples. The tensions between European empires led to the outbreak of World War I, which included the U.S. Literary responses to this moment from writers of artistic, political movements laid out the foundation for discourse on post-colonialism and race relations. Writers of Harlem Renaissance and Celtic Revival, in particular, explore the effect of decolonization on perceived notions of race, class, and multiculturalism. Padiac Colum, Willian B. Yeats, Constance Markievicz, W.E.B. Du Bois, Alain Locke, Georgia Douglas Johnson, and Alice Dunbar-Nelson (among others) critically observed the impact imperial ambitions placed on colonized peoples. Both movements used similar strategies to develop their presence and purpose. First, writers constructed a history of pre-colonial heritage. Second, they express nostalgia for a land from which they were geographically and/or historically separated. Third, they used their writings to assert their own notions of nation-state and self. These strategies for building artistic, political movements created themes and ideas for sustained discoursed. They also prioritize the perspective of colonized people on imperial decline and cultural renewal.

Comment: This is less of anthology rough introduction and more of a paper introduction.

Concern: I want to make sure I include disclaimers on authors’ status and privileges. I think it is important to mention that there are many writers who speak for a cause, but tend to marginalized people. How would I go about including that?

Question: Is the connection between WWI and the CR and HR clear? How could I make it smoother or clearer?

December 4th, 2017 by serlemip

Final Project Introduction and Thesis Draft

The Harlem Renaissance and the Celtic Revival movements explore race through literature and art. As students in the United States during the 21st century, we are often unaware of the racialized nature of the Celtic Revival texts, and we tend to over simplify the aspects of race in Harlem Renaissance literature. As Matthew Frye Jacobson’s introduction to Whiteness of a Different Color and Kwame Anthony Appiah’s essay, “Race” discuss, the evolution of the Celt throughout the history of Ireland and the mass migration of Irish immigrants to the United States has diminished the racial identity of the Celt. The slow degradation of the Celt as a race has made it harder for students in the 21st century to recognize the racialized aspects of Celtic Revival literature. As such, I have included in this anthology a variety of genres from both the Celtic Revival and the Harlem Renaissance to inform my readers of this racial aspect of Celtic Revival texts and to provide more ways to view race in literature from the Harlem Renaissance. By looking that the Harlem Renaissance and Celtic Revival in tandem, aspects used to read and analyze essays, prose, and poems written during the Harlem Renaissance, will help readers to identify and analyze the racial nature of Celtic Revival texts, and what it meant for the Celtic Revival writers to have texts that focused on the Celt as a race itself. This will also help to provide a deeper analysis of race in Harlem Renaissance texts. My goal in forming and organizing this anthology is twofold; I aim to help my readers complicate race in Harlem Renaissance texts, and I hope to reintroduce and situate race in Celtic Revival literature.


Question: What ideas about race in Celtic Revival or Harlem Renaissance literature would you like/expect to see in the rest of my final paper based on this introduction?

December 4th, 2017 by Noah Fusco

1923/1959: O’Casey and Hansberry’s Post-Event Plays

Somewhere around the midcentury, Lorraine Hansberry walked into a performance of Juno and the Paycock, Sean O’Casey’s working class drama, and heard in the language that pain, pain ever, for ever of poverty, of war, of human suffering. Herein she found the bottomless well from which she would derive the waters of her plays.

The careers of Sean O’Casey and Lorraine Hansberry both began with remarkably assured plays: The Shadow of a Gunman and A Raisin in the Sun. Each one was written, staged, and consumed only shortly after the generally accepted end of culture-shaping movements. For O’Casey, he was writing in the wake of the Celtic Literary Revival, W.B. Yeats and J.M. Synge’s hyper-Irish dramas. Lorraine Hansberry debuted with A Raisin in the Sun at a very precarious moment in the history of black cultural history, at the end of the fifties, at the very beginning of a very serious revolutionary foment and yet a solid decade or so after the fade out of the Harlem Renaissance with its burst of black re-assertment. O’Casey and Hansberry are in certain ways both inheritors of their respective cultural traditions, and they represent the twinned likenesses of them. For what Shadow and Raisin remain constantly concerned with, they are outgrowths of the same cultural situation that the Celtic Revival and Harlem Renaissance exist: the question of home, of violence, of revolution, and of nation; and yet, all the same, of art. The latter may no more be divorced from all of the former than Hansberry may be divorced from O’Casey, or either from their cultural precedents.

The Shadow of a Gunman and A Raisin in the Sun through their depiction of destabilized, insufficient domestic arrangements, economic relationships, children, and liminal understanding of race renew the socio-cultural projects that came before in order to examine the economic relationship between nation, oppression, and liberation.

Question: how can we understand how a movement like CR or HR ends? What results in its conclusion? Does it have one?

December 4th, 2017 by olearyc

Anthology Introduction

When studying the Harlem Renaissance and Celtic Revival, sexuality is driving force in drawing parallels between these two movements. Throughout the Harlem Renaissance, authors like Langston Hughes combatted previous conventions of sexuality and depicted sexual attraction as capable of crossing racial lines. Additionally, authors like Claude Mckay introduced queer desire among African American individuals and is widely acclaimed for his works regarding sexuality. The works of both writers can be synthesized in that both individuals made progressive strides in painting a more inclusionary image of sexuality. Despite these positive outcomes of the Harlem Renaissance, there were several instances depicted in poetry of sexual immorality such as prostitution that prompted objectification of women and gestured towards conventional stereotypes. This raises the question: How is one to interpret the overall progression regarding sexuality in the movement when there is a prevalent dissonance between the positive sentiment surrounding racial mixing and the introduction of queer desire contrasted with  negative sentiment regarding sexaul explotation? This dichotomy helps readers to recognize similar patterns throughout the movement of the Celtic Revival. Although the Celtic Revival is marked by alluring romanticism often depicted in W.B Yeat’s poetry, Often issues of wife beating, sexuality, and same sex attraction were taboo in Irish society. Women in particular experienced heightened sexual repression due to their involvement with the Catholic church. Although both the Harlem Renaissance and Celtic Revival are markers of tremendous innovation and liberation among artists, both movements suffered from either acts of sexual repression, violence, or adhered to previous conventions of sexuality.

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