Palestine consider a small region of land that has played a prominent role within the ancient and modern history of the Middle East. The history of Palestine has been marked by frequent political conflict and violent land seizures . Its importance to several major world religions, a and since Palestine sits at a valuable geographic crossroads between Africa and Asia. Today, Palestine theoretically includes the West Bank and Gaza  . The Gaza Strip is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west; by Egypt on the southwest and by Israel on the east and north. The West Bank is bordered by Israel in the north, south, and west; and by Jordan and the Dead Sea in the east. The Gaza Strip is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west; by Egypt on the southwest and by Israel on the east and north. The West Bank is bordered by Israel in the north, south, and west; and by Jordan and the Dead Sea in the east. Palestinian Arabic is the primary language spoken by Palestinians with a unique dialect.

Israel is a country in the Middle East, bounded to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east and southeast by Jordan and  West Bank, to the southwest by Egypt, and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea and the Gaza Strip. Hebrew, the country’s official language, and Arabic, legally recognized as holding special status, are used in all proceedings.

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 Palestine is a parliamentary democracy, based on political pluralism, and is a multiparty system. Palestine does not have any formal constitution. Palestinian legal framework is based on various historical legal systems (Ottoman, Egyptian, Jordanian, and Israeli) as well as the 2002 Basic Law (amended in 2003 and 2005) that functions as a temporary constitution until the establishment of an independent state. The President  is elected by universal, direct suffrage for a 4 year period. The President holds executive powers, shared with the Council of Ministers in charge of enforcing decisions of the Legislative Council. The president nominate the Prime Minister, who nominate the government ministers.

Israel  is a democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government headed by a prime minister and involving numerous political parties representing a wide range of political positions. Israel’s lawmaking body, the Knesset, or assembly, is a single-chamber legislature with 120 members who are elected every four years (or more frequently if a Knesset vote of nonconfidence in the government results in an early election). Members exercise important functions in standing committees. 

Here is a brief snapshot to bring understanding of what the Israeli and Palestinian crisis is and why it is taking place? 

May 16, 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement it Sets Borders: 

Officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, laid down the borders of the Middle East as we have known them for a century. Iraq, Transjordan and Palestine under British control; and Syria and Lebanon under French control.

1920s and 1930s

The Jewish population in Palestine increased by hundreds of thousands, facilitated by the British (who were honouring the Balfour Declaration).

Balfour Declaration


The Nazis rise to power in 1933 led to many German Jews and those in surrounding countries to flee from persecution and discrimination. Many European countries refused to allow them entry. As well as the U.S which had implemented a law to limit immigration. The British empire that controlled Palestine and other European powers decided to place the Jews seeking refuge in Palestine.

Nov. 29, 1947:

United Nations proposed to Partition Palestine. Turning Palestine into a Jewish state and Palestinian State.

February 1956 Map of UN Partition Plan for Palestine, adopted 29 Nov 1947, with boundary of previous UNSCOP partition plan added in green.

May 1948

Israel was declared an independent state with David Ben Gurion as the Prime Minister

The Arab-Israeli War breaks out in response to the creation of a Jewish state, on Arab territory. The Arab countries support Palestinian people. The following truce agreement leaves Israel with more territory than expected. Over 700000 Palestinians fled the region and became refugees in neighboring Arab countries. The Palestinians call this war the Nakba, or catastrophe, as they became stateless.

Nakba 1948 Palestine – Jaramana Refugee Camp, Damascus, Syria


Tensions escalated again in 1956 when Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal. This led to the Suez Crisis. Israel attacked the Sinai Peninsula and retook the canal with British and French support.


Tensions escalated again in 1956 when Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal. This led to the Suez Crisis. Israel attacked the Sinai Peninsula and retook the canal with British and French support.

6-day war, in which Israel claims Golan Heights from Syria and Sinai in Egypt. Israel establishes illegal settlements in West Bank, Gaza, and Golan Heights.


The Yom Kipper War involving Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Egypt takes back Sinai Peninsula. The fighting stopped after two weeks by a UN resolution.

1973 Yom Kippur war, raising the Egyptian flag, Sinai


Israel confiscates acres of land from Palestinian citizens. Triggering mass protests which are then brutally put down. “Land Day” is commemorated every year in remembrance.


Israel invaded Lebanon and ejected the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO).

    • The PLO was formed in 1964 to fight for the “liberation of Palestine” through armed struggle.
    • Meanwhile, Israel was creating Jewish settlements in areas that were considered Palestinian territory including in East Jerusalem.
    • The First Lebanon War took place from 6 June 1982 – 5 June 1985.


There was an uprising of Palestinians against the Israeli occupation of Gaza and the West Bank. Hundreds of people were killed and this is called the First Palestinian Intifada (Arabic word meaning ‘shaking off’).

Barricades during the Intifada


Water Issues become a negotiating factor for Palestinians and Israelis


The Oslo Accords created a Palestine Authority with limited self-governance of parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip; it acknowledged the PLO as Israel’s partner in permanent-status negotiations about remaining questions. The most important questions were the borders of Israel and Palestine, Israeli settlements, the status of Jerusalem, Israel’s military presence in and control over remaining territories after Israel’s recognition of Palestinian autonomy, and the Palestinian right of return. The Oslo Accords however did not create a Palestinian state

1995 :

Oslo two Accords were agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The Oslo Accords marked the start of a peace process aimed at achieving a peace treaty. And at fulfilling the “right of the Palestinian people to self-determination.” The Oslo process started after secret negotiations in Oslo, Norway. Resulting in the recognition by the PLO of the State of Israel and vice versa, the recognition by Israel of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people.

Yitzhak Rabin (Left), with Yasser Arafat and Shimon Peres. (Saar Yaacov/Israel GPO)


International Court of Justice advises the UN that Israeli settlements in West Bank and Golan Heights are illegal.


The Second Intifada which was another Palestinian uprising against Israel due to the failure of 200 Camp David Summit to reach a final agreement on the Israeli- Palestinian peace agreement. In response to the protest it encourages Israel to build a wall around the contested Jerusalem. Further splitting the country.

A Palestinian child throws stones at an Israeli occupation Forces tank, much like the iconic image of Faris Odeh from October 2000 during the Second Intifada (Musa Al Shaer/AFP)


Second Lebanon War started in July 2006 between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon, Golan Heights and Northern Israel. It ended after a couple of months through a UN-brokered ceasefire.


Israel stated booming Gaza . Its known as Operation Cast Lead, the Gaza Massacre, and the Battle of al-Furqan. More than 1,300 people killed in Gaza

During the 2008 Gaza War, Israeli forces killed 1,390 Palestinians. (Photo: The Chronicle)


UNSC (United Nations Security Council) determines Palestine to be a non-member observing state. Making the Israeli settlements fully illegal. In the same year, isreal boomed Gaza 

The results of a draft resolution on Palestinian status are posted in the United Nations headquarters, November 29, 2012 (AP/Kathy Willens)


President Donald Trump recognizes Jerusalem (a much-contested land) as the capital of Israel. And moves the American embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Causing tensions to rise.


In May 2021 fighting intensified with protest, rioting, and rocket attacks against Israel by Hamas and Israeli airstrikes targeting the Gaza Strip. The violence renewed on May 6 when Palestinian protest began over an anticipated decision of the Supreme Court of Israel on the eviction of Palestinian families from Sheikh Jarrah, a neighborhood in occupied East Jerusalem. Under international law, the area which is annexed by Israel is part of Palestinian territories. On May 7 Israeli police stormed the compound of the Al-Aqsa Mosque the third-holiest site in Islam, located on the Temple Mount, which is sacred in Judaism.

The Genocide of the Palestinian People by Israel still going until now …