All posts by Amanda

Joshua Lippincott in the Cumberland County Historical Society

For part two of my historical newspaper hunt, I journeyed to the Cumberland County Historical Society to read through the newspapers from the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. This process would be a little different than the previous, as it required reading through newspapers on microfilm instead of searching digital articles in online databases. No key words, no search filters, just me, three hours, and a few hundred newspaper articles. In short, it would be about 50 billion times more exhausting and time-consuming.

I expected to be faced with the mysterious beast of microfilm, but I was handed 5 CD’s when I asked to look through the Carlisle Indian School newspapers. So, I sat down at one of the CCHS computers and loaded the PDF’s up one by one.

Luckily, I did have a slight point of reference, as I knew the time period that Lippincott was most heavily involved with the Carlisle Indian School. It was still a period of about 9 years, but that’s better than searching through the 39 years of the school’s existence. I also had a few specific articles that I found from the footnotes of secondary sources I found on Lippincott. I was most interested in finding an article written by Lippincott himself about his journey to the West where he recruited a few dozen students himself. However, I would still be happy to find any mention of him, as anything to help me visualize his experience, influence, and image at the school would be very helpful for my project.

I started at the beginning, searching through the first newspaper published by the school, Eadle Keatah Toh (this translates to The Morning Star, but it should not be confused with The Morning Star a later publication produced by the school). The amount of reading to do was overwhelming. I decided to do some hard-core skimming, quickly scrolling from page to page, only stopping when I saw “Lippincott.” I recognized that I may be missing some relevant articles that just happened to not mention the professor’s name, but I figured that once I had a better understanding of his involvement and could target my focus to specific dates, I would go back and read through more thoroughly. One of the most difficult yet important things to learn about the research process is how to do it quickly and efficiently, and I’m still in the process of trying to work out that balance.

Another difficulty I experienced with this type of research is the lack of organization that requires a lot more leg work. Each CD (5 in total) would have about 10-20 PDF files that each contained a number of newspapers that would usually span about a year and a half. However, they were not in any chronological order, so I had to literally scroll through every single file that contained over a year’s worth of newspapers to find maybe one or two per file that were relevant to my search. I was actually kicked out of the archives due to closing time before I was even able to finish, so my findings below only cover about half of the total newspapers on all of the CD’s, and those CD’s don’t even contain all of the newspapers from the Carlisle Indian School.

In spite of all of this exhaustion, I actually had fun reading through the papers, even the ones that weren’t relevant. One of my favorite finds was a short letter written by a student to the superintendent of the school, Captain Richard Henry Pratt. Regretfully, I didn’t save the excerpt, but in essence, the student, Conrad, was requesting a change of the name chosen for him (every student got new Anglo-Saxon names to replace their Native names) due to the fact that all of the other students called him Corn Head. In part, this is a sad story of a Native child being stripped of his culture, even down to his name, and forced to assimilate to a culture in which he did not belong. However, the language of the letter was so simple and the problem so small that it really reminded me how young these students were. They were people too, children who had toys and missed their parents and called each other Corn Head. I also can’t think of a cuter nickname for someone than Corn Head. I’m not sure if this article would be something that I could use in my final project, but it showed me that the student newspapers were an excellent source to find writing by the students themselves that can bring life to the digital exhibit that I will create.

Lippincott funeral 1
Courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society

In terms of the actually relevant discoveries, I found quite a bit. Two short pieces from the Eadle Keatah Toh in January 1881[1] and March 1883[2] reported the death of a few students and mentioned that Lippincott conducted their funerals. These pieces weren’t exceptionally interesting, but they do provide some nice framework into the sort of involvement that Lippincott had at the school. They could be useful as I create my digital timeline of Lippincott’s involvement with the Carlisle Indian School, as they are small moments in time that speak to the sort of connection that Lippincott had  with the school and its students.

Another piece I found, under the “Monthly Home Letters” section of the February 1882 edition of the Eadle Keatah Toh[3] is a short letter written by a student to his family and friends back home. It describes the sermon they received at Church the previous Sunday from Lippincott, and a short but sweet interaction between the Professor and the students. Obviously, this newspaper was heavily censored, as it was published by the administration of the school, so it must be called in to question whether the students truly felt this way towards Lippincott, but it does shed more light on Lippincott’s involvement and the ways in which he interacted with the students.

Courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society
Courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society

The most exciting find was the article I was hoping to find from the beginning: a lengthy front-page article in The Morning Star of a letter written by Lippincott himself to Pratt about his recruitment of 51 students from various tribes in Kansas in September of 1882.[4] There were a few interesting pieces from this letter, including several small anecdotes where Lippincott, who is essentially forcing Native parents to give up their children and possibly never see them again, shows a surprising amount of care and empathy for the children. Even though physicians advised the professor to not accept a young boy who actually wanted to join the school due to an illness—potentially consumption—he still brought him because “sentiment and humanity protest against separating the boy from his sisters” (1:2). However, a strong racist sentiment was still apparent where Lippincott refers to two girls with one Native parent and one white parent as “half breeds” (1:3).

Lippincott recruitment

Courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society
Courtesy of the Cumberland County Historical Society

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I found this article, with Lippincott’s combination of empathy and kindness but also extreme racism towards and patronization of the Natives, to be fascinating. They really force me as a historian to practice empathy, as it’s hard to view what Lippincott does as acts of kindness, although that is how he sees it. It would be interesting to contrast this work (along with the article on the Carlisle Indian School written by Lippincott) with the writings of Native teacher at the school Zitkala Ša, who strongly condemned the school.

Furthermore, at the end of the letter, Lippincott lists the names of all the students he ended up bringing to the school. This provides me with the extremely exciting opportunity to possibly find these students and frame my project around them. I’ve done a quick search of their names in the “Student Record” portion of the Carlisle Indian School Digital Resource Center, with no results, but I plan to reach out to other sources, such as Barbara Landis, who has conducted a lot of research in identifying the students of the Carlisle Indian School, to continue my research.

[1] “Died,” Eadle Keatah Toh, (Carlisle, PA), Jan. 1881.

[2] “Died,” Eadle Keatah Toh, (Carlisle, PA), March 1883.

[3] “Monthly Home Letters,” Eadle Keatah Toh, (Carlisle, PA), Feb. 1882.

[4] “Dr. Lippincott’s Report,” The Morning Star, (Carlisle, PA), September 1882.

Annotated Bibliography on the Carlisle Indian School

The focus for this assignment is the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. The following list is a collection of academic sources both centering specifically on the school itself as well as broader sources that provide contextual information about Native American off-reservation boarding schools in general. In finding these sources, I had the following goals: 1) to gain a broad understanding of the nature, purpose, and scope of these schools in America; 2) to gain an in-depth understanding of the methods and processes used by the administration of the schools and Carlisle’s school in particular; 3) to understand the experience of the Native students in the Carlisle Indian School; and 4) to learn of the legacy these schools (and the Carlisle school in particular) and the different perspectives that historians have on them today.


Books:

Adams, David W. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

This text, written by David Adams, a professor of education at Cleveland State University, is a survey of the history of off-reservation boarding schools for Native Americans and an analysis of their purpose of Native assimilation to white American society. While this text does spend time discussing the Carlisle Indian School, it also provides information on other similar schools, thus providing the ability to compare the similarities and differences of these schools all across the country. As can be seen from the title, Adams takes a strong stance in his writing that these schools and those in charge of them ultimately performed cultural genocide against Native Americans through specific methods of forced assimilation of their students. However, Adams also presents various modes of resistance among the students, both while in school and after graduation, showing that they were not passive victims in the assimilation. To prove his argument and present his analysis, Adams utilizes autobiographies of both teachers and students of the schools, as well as school and county newspapers.

Churchill, Ward. Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Indian Residential Schools. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers, 2004.

Churchill, a renowned scholar of Native American history and professor of American Indian Studies at the University of Colorado, explores the impact that Native American boarding schools had on Native Americans. In this book, Churchill argues that these schools should be examined within the larger context of the genocide waged against Native Americans by the US government and that they should not be viewed as merely an effort to force assimilation but to attack the culture and population of Indigenous groups. He examines the magnitude of negative effects of the schools such as alcoholism, suicides, and tribal dissolution. While Churchill does wholly devote his book to the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, his text provides an opportunity to compare the impact that the school in Carlisle had on its students to the effects that are described in the book, and possibly provide new evidence to either support or counter his argument.

Fear-Segal, Jacqueline and Susan D. Rose, eds. Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Indigenous Histories, Memories, & Reclamations. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2016.

This brand new book approaches the discussion of off-reservation Native American boarding schools in an entirely unique way. Specifically examining the Carlisle Indian School, the editors combine a collection of brand new research on the school with speeches, pictures, and poetry about the school from descendants of students and Native activists. This unique collaboration between scholars and non-academic Natives provides new perspectives and insight into what the experience at the Carlisle Indian School was like for the students as well as its legacy today.

Mauro, Hayes P. The Art of Americanization at the Carlisle Indian School. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2011.

This text focuses on the process of assimilating the Native students, described by Mauro as “Americanization,” at the Carlisle Indian School through an analysis of visual evidence left behind from the school. Mauro argues that the use of pseudo scientific ideas and social Darwinism was extremely important in the justification of the school’s existence as well as the development of the methods of “Americanization.” Mauro provides an interesting and unique argument in this text, presenting ideas that most other scholars of Native American off-reservation boarding schools do not focus on or even mention at all. Through the use of pictures and imagery, uncommon but extremely useful sources, he creates a connection with the students and sheds new insight on their experiences.

Walker-McNeil, Pearl L. The Carlisle Indian School: A Study of Acculturation. Washington, D.C.: The American University Press, 1979.

This dissertation by Pearl Lee Walker-McNeil, a PhD student in Anthropology at American University, provides a unique argument on the Carlisle Indian School’s “Outing System” and its effect on the strength of the assimilation of the students. Although the text is dated, its focus on primary sources from the school and Richard Henry Pratt, the school’s founder, as well as its unique argument and perspective give it some reliability and possibly value for research on the school.


 Articles:

Bess, Jennifer Caroline. “Casting a Spell: Acts of Cultural Continuity in Carlisle Indian Industrial School’s the Red Man and Helper.” Wicazo Sa Review 2 (2011): 13-38. Accessed October 5, 2016. [Project MUSE, EBSCOhost]

In this article, Jennifer Bass analyzes the Carlisle Indian Industrial School’s student run newspapers, The Red Man and The Helper. In her analysis, she makes the argument that although the students were forced to assimilate to White American culture and ways of life, they were not passive participants in the process. Bess points out various modes of resistance that can be seen in their writings in the newspapers, showing that despite their limitations, the students still fought to have agency over their own identity and to share their own perspectives on their situations.

Enoch, Jessica. “Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Ša and the Carlisle Indian School.” College English 65 (2002): 117-141. Accessed October 5, 2016. [EBSCOhost]

Jessica Enoch analyzes the a more transparent mode of resistance in the writings of Zitkala Ša, a former student and teacher at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. In her autobiography and essays, Zitkala Ša openly condemns the administrators at the school, specifically the founder Richard Henry Pratt, as well as the humiliating and damaging methods of assimilation that the school adopted for its students. This analysis of Zitkala Ša’s writing provides an unprecedented level of insight into the perspective of students in the Carlisle Indian School as well as Natives who opposed the school.

Gamache, Ray. “Sport as Cultural Assimilation: Representations of American Indian Athletes in the Carlisle School Newspaper.” American Journalism 26 (2009): 7-37. Accessed October 3, 2016. [Communications & Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost]

In this journal article, Ray Gamache specifically analyzes how the Carlisle Indian School used sport as a method of assimilation for its Native students. Gamache uses newspaper articles about sporting events and the school’s sports teams to argue that in these articles, the school attempted to portray its students as active participants in White American Male culture and lifestyle, thus forcing them to assimilate.

Zinc, Amanda J. “Carlisle’s Writing Circle: Boarding School Texts and the Decolonization of Domesticity.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 27 (2015): 37-65. Accessed October 4, 2016. [Project MUSE, EBSCOhost]

Amanda Zinc analyzes the specific pressures put on female students in the Carlisle Indian Industrial School through administrative writings as well as writings by the female students themselves. She argues that the school’s methods of assimilation were gendered and strongly enforced values of domesticity and White/European ideals of femininity onto its female students; however, many of these students resisted those ideas and, after graduation, went on to develop their own ideas of the home and womanhood that nuanced White/European standard for women.

Discovering Joshua Lippincott: An Analysis of 19th Century Newspapers

My third foray into the world of historical research began with Horatio Collins King. He is one of the two big contenders for the subject of my final project, given that the Dickinson Archives has his entire journal documenting his four years at Dickinson, so I wanted to see what newspapers have written about him.

The first article I found [HC King campaign] was for King’s campaign for Secretary of State from the New York Times in 1895, and was a very obvious example of political bias in 19th century newspapers. It was fairly interesting and clearly biased- almost like an advertisement to vote for the Democrat H.C. King. The article had a fairly thorough biography of his life, and made him out to be extremely intelligent and heroic. There wasn’t too much in the article that I didn’t already know, but I was intrigued by the clear bias shown by the writers.[1]

Another article I found on Horatio Collins King-there were a lot-was from the Washington Times on March 4, 1914. The article’s title was “Gen. King, Orator and Author, Is Ill,” and the article the article (like the last one) mostly provided a short biography of his life. It’s starting to become apparent to me in this search how famous Horatio

The Washington Times Courtesy of Chronicling America
The Washington Times Courtesy of Chronicling America

Collins King became, for a fairly popular newspaper to feel the need to write an entire article just because he gets sick. I also noticed that the article states that King was “chiefly known to fame, however, as an author.”[2] I knew he wrote books, but I had no idea they became at all popular. King’s popularity and very interesting and diverse life would definitely give me a lot of material to study and work with, but for some reason I just don’t find him intriguing as other, less easy ideas that I have. I will have to keep looking into him as well, though, because I don’t want to limit myself to one subject of research just yet.


My biggest concern (I like to save the best for last) was to find something useful on my most interesting student, Joshua Allen Lippincott. I was hardly able to find anything of significance (other than a possible secret family) on him during my first two research attempts, but I would not accept defeat this time. I was really hoping to find a connection between Lippincott and the Carlisle Indian School, so after searching for King, I began to look for newspaper articles with that focus in mind.

My tenacity helped me devise a number of different research terms, including “Lippincott AND Carlisle,” “Lippincott AND Indian,” “Lippincott AND Pratt,” and of course including all of the 50 billion different ways one can spell the name Lippincott. I searched endlessly on multiple different newspaper databases, including 19th Century American Newspapers, Accessible Archives, and Historical Newspapers, but to no avail. However, this time, I did not give up my search.

From the LA Times Courtesy of Chronicling America

The first relevant document found was an obituary from the LA Times entitled “Noted Educator Passed Here,” found on ProQuest [LA Times Obituary]. At first I was disappointed, but then something peaked my interest at the bottom of the short article:

“The only surviving relative in this part of the country is his son, J. B. Lippincott.”[3] This is the second piece of evidence I have found in my research that proves that Joshua Lippincott did have a family, despite the fact that the Dickinson Archives’ biography of him states otherwise. It wasn’t the find I was looking for, but it’s definitely exciting.

 

 

 

My lucky search term was “Lippincott AND Carlisle,” in the Chronicling America database, as I found two relevant results. The first was from the Lancaster Daily Intelligencer:

Lippincott Indian School Friend

As seen above, the article states that Lippincott was “an active friend of the well-known Indian school at that place.”[4] FINALLY! It wasn’t much; in fact, it’s basically nothing, but I finally have documentary evidence beyond one single reference source that Lippincott was in fact involved with the Carlisle Indian School- even an “active friend.” Now, I can continue searching with confidence that there is some sort of impact he must have made on the institution for a newspaper for a town an away (by today’s standards) to specifically write about it.

The second article, from The Billings Herald, gives me even more insight into Lippincott’s connection to the Indian School:Lippincott rounding up NativesIn describing the addition of 56 new students to the Indian School, the article implies that Lippincott was the one who brought them from their homes. It also mentions a “commissioner of Indian Affairs,” and I am not sure if this is Lippincott or a different individual, but now I at least know that Lippincott brought (took? I am not entirely sure about the methods used to populate the school’s student body) the Native children to the Indian School on at least two occasions.[5] This is an amazing find, as I went from not even being completely sure that Lippincott even had any sort of meaningful connection with the Indian School to learning all of this information. My tenacity and army of search terms pulled through!


 

[1] “Gen. Horatio C. King: Democratic Candidate for Office of Secretary of State,” New York Times (New York, NY), Oct. 6, 1895, 21:1 [Proquest}.

[2] “Gen. King, Orator and Author, Is Ill,” Washington Times (Washington, DC), March 4, 1914, 14:1 [Chronicling America].

[3] “Noted Educator Passes Here,” Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, CA), Dec. 31, 1906, 17:5 [Proquest].

[4] “Personal,” Lancaster Daily Intelligencer (Lancaster, PA), Aug. 25, 1883, 2:2 [Chronicling America].

[5] “General News Summary,” Billings Herald (Billings, MT), Oct. 5, 1882, 2:3 [Chronicling America].

Horgler Collins King and Intriguing Leads: A First Step Analysis of the Dickinson College Class of 1858

Data Overview:

The first source I had upon receiving my class year was the alumni record, edited by George L. Reed. From this source, I gathered that in the class of 1858, there are 110 total students, 35 of which successfully obtained a bachelors degree. 110 is a lot of students to study, so I will most likely focus on the 35 graduates, who I have more information about anyways. However, for this exercise, I collected and organized data on every student, as I wanted to get a sense of who the class of 1858 was.

At first, trying to get all the information out of the alumni record for 110 students seemed daunting- there were way too many tiny words in that packet. However, once I began to read through each student’s record, I easily began to develop a sense of the type of information provided- namely, birth and death dates, place of origin, occupation, family information (occasionally), and campus affiliations. Therefore, it was pretty easy to decide how I would categorize and organize the information on an Excel spreadsheet. As I will be focusing more on the graduates than the entire student body in later research, I created two spreadsheets- one of all students, and one of the graduates only. This way, I can choose how closely I want to focus on the information I obtain from the alumni record.

The first category I created in the spreadsheet was place of origin. Of all of the students in the class of 1858, the record was able to find and report the place of origin from 91.8% of the students. From the information gathered, I created the following chart:

place of origin

 

As can be seen from the pie chart, a very large majority of the students were from close by. Interestingly enough, one of the students in the “Other” category originated from the West Indies. I would assume that he comes from a family of major plantation owners, considering that most of the natives of the Bahamas were enslaved by white Americans and thus would not attend an institution of higher education. It still may be interesting to look into his life and see if I can glean any information about 19th century life in the Caribbean.

The second category I created was occupation. It is important to note that the record reported the occupations of only 60% of the members of the class, so it is not a perfectly complete description. After reading through the occupations, I chose to generalize each specific job into one of seven categories: law, education, religion, business, politics, military, and other, for a few jobs that did not fit into these major categories. This was because I did not want to overwhelm myself with unnecessarily specific information. The point of this exercise is to create a general sense of who these people were, not to write 110 biographies. From this information, I created another chart:

occupation

I chose not to include the 40% unknown occupations, as that would consume the entire chart and take away from my ability to comprehend the information that I do have. I will also note that there were many mixtures of occupations per person, as a person obviously does not always do the same thing his whole life. I recorded this in my spreadsheet by listing each category and separating them with a slash. My goal is not yet to understand the specific chronology of each student’s life, but to gain a sense of the types of careers these students went in to.

However, in listing each occupation category for each student, what captured my attention was the occupational mobility these men had. Many were involved in religion, education, politics, law, and business in some manner throughout their lives. I would be interested in looking into the educational structure of Dickinson College at this time to see what these men were studying to give them so many opportunities. Did they even have majors at this time? Were students able to pick and choose classes for their schedules? These are some question I may pursue in future research.

The last category I created was campus affiliation. The alumni record, reported the affiliations of 73% of the class, and the results are complied below:

campus affilations

Clearly, with 73% of the class year involved in at least one, but usually two, campus organizations, I would have a lot of material to look at if I choose to research student life. I would be especially interested in examining the fraternities to take a look at masculinity structures and male gender roles, as that is a topic that has always interested me.

 

Other Reference:

cloud
Daniel Mountjoy Cloud Courtesy of Dickinson Archives

My first candidate for the external reference aspect of the assignment was Daniel Mountjoy Cloud, as he served as a captain in the secret service of the Confederacy,  which seems interesting.

I first searched for him on the Dickinson Archives and got multiple results. The first, a short biography, gave me a good summary of his life. Interestingly enough, I found that while in the Confederate secret service, he actually worked with fellow Dickinsonian Thomas Conrad in a plot to kill Abraham Lincoln. I had head about Conrad’s involvement in that plot a few times before, but I had no idea that an individual from my own assigned class year was also an integral part of the planning.

Cloud was also in another search result in the Dickinson Archives entitled “Students Bury Book.” I must admit I was intrigued. The link led me to a journal entry from another one of the students in my class year, Horatio Collins King (discussed further below). In the entry, King describes an event in which students stole an apparently widely-hated book from a professor and buried it. I suppose mid-19th century college students lacked the many methods of entertainment-or outlets of frustration, depending on how you look at it-that we are lucky to have today. In all seriousness, I really enjoyed reading this small anecdote into student life, and will definitely be looking into the journal of Horatio Collins King in later research.

To continue my research on Daniel Cloud, I moved to Wikipedia. When I typed in his name, an article for Thomas Nelson Conrad appeared just as it did in Dickinson Archives. I learned that when Conrad went to Washington to discuss plans to kill Lincoln, Cloud accompanied him, and that the two were actually college roommates and fraternity brothers. Beyond that, there was no information about Cloud in Conrad’s entry. I moved my search after this to Google Books, and although I found a few secondary sources that mentioned Cloud, I could not find another reference source. In terms of this part of my research, I’ve reached a bit of a dead end, but I do have secondary and primary sources to look in to later on if I so choose.

 

hulsey
Jennings M.C. Hulsey Courtesy of Dickinson Archives

A second student that I researched, Jennings M.C. Hulsey, was killed at the Battle of Bull Run according to the alumni record, which I found intriguing. I found him on Dickinson Archives and learned that he fought in a Confederate unit that “saw some of the heaviest fighting,” and, arguably more importantly, that he was quite the prankster. The reference specifically relates an incident in which he tarred a professor’s blackboards and was temporarily suspended from the college. It seems like a major part of my class year’s day-to-day affairs involved a lot of pranks; it would definitely be fun and interesting to center my project around that idea, if there was enough information on it.

On Google Books, I found him in a 1900 register of his fraternity, Phi Kappa Sigma. Although this document was made less than half a century after his death, and it could certainly be argued that it is a primary and not a reference source, it does have the potential purpose of a gateway into further research. As this was the purpose that it served me, for this assignment I am considering it a reference source. I didn’t gain any new information from the register, but I found an awesome picture of Hulsey’s chapter, which presumably includes Hulsey, although there is no way to tell who is who.

courtesy of Google Books
Epsilon Chapter of Phi Kappa Sigma Courtesy of Google Books

I tried figuring out which one was Hulsey by comparing it to the other picture of him from the Dickinson Archives, but I couldn’t make a definite conclusion. It is also possible that this picture was taken when the register was written, which would mean Hulsey would have been dead for a few decades and certainly would not have been in the picture. Either way, it’s a cool picture, and it’s nice to know that fraternities leave behind so many documents and pictures of their members.

 

Courtesy of Dickinson Archives
Horatio Collins King Courtesy of Dickinson Archives

After looking into the project that a previous student already made about Horatio Collins King, as well as personally reading his journal entry about burying the abominable book, I knew I had to look into him. There were a LOT of search results from him on the Dickinson Archives site (11 pages to be specific), but as I am currently just looking for reference sources, I focused on the short biography the archives provided. King was involved in many things throughout his life- he wrote and edited books and newspapers, he fought in the Union Army and received a Congressional Medal of Honor, he ran for congress and other political positions, and most importantly, he wrote a lot of songs.

Reference information of King can also be found on his Wikipedia page, which interestingly writes that he took a stance against anti-Chinese sentiment during his time as a judge-advocate-general in New York. I also found more reference sources of him on Google Books, including the 1917 edition of Who’s Who in New York as well as the Biographical Directory of the State of New York 1900but these sources did not give me any information that I had not learned from Wikipedia or the Dickinson Archives. It seems that historical research-especially when you are only researching references-is a lot of reading the same information 50 times in a row and hoping for one minute detail you haven’t come across yet.

Joshua Allan Lippincott Courtesy of Dickinson Archives
Joshua Allan Lippincott Courtesy of Dickinson Archives

The last person I searched for was Joshua Allan Lippincott. He was the president of the University of Kansas, so I thought he would be relevant enough to have a few sources written about him.

As always, I searched the Dickinson Archives first and found, as always, a short bio. Based on this source he seems like a pretty unpleasant person. (He may or may not have had an illegitimate child and is explicitly described as “dour, pious, and grim.”) However, this is about research, and not morality, so I put that aside and looked at the facts. I read that he was a chief adviser for the Carlisle Indian School. I had learned about the school last year during my American History class, so I was immediately intrigued.

Next, I searched for Lippincott on Wikipedia, finding an article, but it was actually seriously lacking in information in comparison with the Dickinson Archives reference. Perhaps if I do choose to research this man more in depth, I could make some contributions to the page. On Google Books, I found a geneology of his family, which although counts as a reference source in my mind, as it contains brief bits of information that I could then use to further my research elsewhere, it did not provide me with any new information about Lippincott. I also found a short biography on him in the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, but there was no mention of the Carlisle Indian School, which was what I was most interested in. I continued to search, but only found primary sources concerning his relationship with the Carlisle Indian School. However, I am very excited about this find, and will definitely be looking into it more deeply when we analyze primary source documents.

Census Records:

The census records search was probably the least exciting part of my research for this assignment. Although it is always fun to be able to look at a document that was actually written a century and a half ago, census documents can be pretty dull, especially when you are reading 15 of them, one after the other. I researched 3 individuals: Horatio Collins King, Joseph Emory Broadwater (who I did look into in other references, but didn’t mention here due to a lack of significant results) and Joshua Lippincott.

King was fairly easy to find, as I knew his place and date of birth as well as the names of his parents, children, and wives. Screenshots of three records from his life can be seen below:

Interestingly enough, in the last census taken, while King was at the age of 72, the census taker misspelled his name and wrote Horgler instead of Horatio. This was much funnier to me while in the throes of research insanity after staring at census records for the past 5 hours. However, it also shows how important it is to pay close attention, as if I had not noticed that every other piece of information was correct, I would not have noticed that record.

 

Joseph Emory Broadwater didn’t have any funny spelling errors and was fairly easy to find census record on.

There is no mention of a son named Wharton in other record or references, so I’m not sure if that is a typo or a boy living with the Broadwaters who was mistaken for a family member, but it could use some further investigation.

 

Joshua Lippincott was difficult to find records on, and I’m still not even sure that the second one is actually him.

In the second record shown, every single fact lines up perfectly with the Lippincott from the class of 1858. His occupation, his name, his age, and his location all make sense. However, the Dickinson Archives reference stated that there was no record of Lippincott marrying and having children (other than the possible illegitimate child). It is possible that Lippincott had random people living in his house and the census taker assumed they were his family, or maybe Lippincott was married all along and his family simply does not exist according to Dickinson College. Maybe Lippincott had a twin who did the exact same thing he did, but ended up marrying and having a family. Either way, I am certainly intrigued.