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Primary Sources

Brown, Marcus L. “A Georgia Cotton Field.” 1907. Photographic Print. Reproduction Number LC-USZ62-41744. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

“Child Labor Standards for the Nation’s Children”; ca. 1941-1945. United States Department of Labor  Government Flyer. Records of the Office of War Information, Record Group 208.

“Children Bought and Sold In Italy and Greece.” Chicago Tribune, July 1904.  

“Cotton Mill Girl: Behind Lewis Hine’s Photograph & Child Labor Series | 100 Photos | TIME.” YouTube. January 06, 2017.

Hine, Lewis. “Child Labor Employer.” 1912. Cartoon. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-047831912. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Hine, Lewis. “Six members of Slebzak family in field, five of whom are working on Bottomley’s farm near Baltimore, Maryland.” July 1909. Photographic print. Reproduction number LC-USZ62-91822. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act. September 1, 1916.  Public Law 64-249, 39 STAT 675, to Prevent Interstate Commerce in the Products of Child Labor, and for Other Purposes. General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11; National Archives Building, Washington, DC.

Suarez, José. “Yo Cuando Era Niño – Mi Padre Querido – José Suarez.” YouTube. June 08, 2014.

Tobin, Maurice J.  “Message to Farm Workers! Why Your Children Should Go to School.” Government Flyer. April 1952. Papers of the NAACP, Part 13: NAACP and Labor, Series A: Subject Files on Labor Conditions and Employment Discrimination,1940-1955.  History vault database. Page 9.

Turbett, William. William Turbett to Selden Spencer, January 13 1925, Rejection of the Proposed Child Labor Constitutional Amendment by the State Legislature of Missouri, Records of the U.S. Senate, Record Group 46.

Zimand,  Gerude Folks to National Child Labor Committee supporters. April 28th 1952. New York, NY. History Vault Database. Page 29.

Secondary sources

Douglas, Dorothy and Lumpkin, Katherine Child workers in America (New York: Robert M. McBride & Company, 1937)

Dredge, Bart. “David Clark’s Campaign of Enlightenment”: Child Labor and the Farmers’ States Rights League, 1911-1940.” North Carolina Historical Review 91, no. 1 (2014): 30-62.

Gratton, Brian and Moen, Jon Roger . “Immigration, Culture, and Child Labor in the United States, 1880-1920,” no. 3 (2003): 355.

Hall, Greg. “”Light Work, Women, Children, and Progressive Era Reform in West Coast Commercial Agriculture and Canning”.” Journal of the West 55, no. 1 (2016): 81-105.

Hindman, Hugh. Child labor: An American History (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharp, 2002)

Lemann, Nicholas. The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. (New York: Vintage Books, 1992).

Pearson, Susan J. “Age Ought to be a Fact: The Campaign Against Child Labor and the Rise of the Birth Certificate.” Journal of American History 101, no. 4 (2015): 1144-1165. doi:10.1093/jahist/jav120.

Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York: With 100 Photographs from the Jacob A. Riis Collection, the Museum of the City of New York and a New Preface by Charles A. Madison. New York: Dover Publications, 1971

Wood, Marjorie. “Emancipating the child laborer: children, freedom, and the moral boundaries of the market in the United States, 1853‒1938” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2011),

Zelizer, Viviana Pricing the priceless child: the changing social value of children (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994)