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Primary Sources:

Alexander, Michelle, National Public Radio. By Dave Davies. January 6, 2012

African Americans in Black Bottom, A History of American Life in Images and Texts, 2009.

Blinder, Alan. “Alabama Pardons 3 ‘Scottsboro Boys’ After 80 Years.” New York Times, 2013.

Black, Roland. “Wallace’s ‘Law-Order’ Aimed At Blacks.” Chicago Daily Defender, 1968, ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Accessed December 3rd, 2019.

“Criminal Justice Facts.” The Sentencing Project. Accessed January 5th, 2020.

Caldwell, Earl. “Negroes Held Oppressed by the Law.” New York Times, 1971, ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Pg. 39. Accessed December 4th, 2019.

French, Philip. “Black and white movie turns grey.” New York Times, 1993, Proquest Historical Newspapers. Accessed December 3rd, 2019.

Parks, Rosa. “Drafts of early writings; Accounts of her arrest and subsequent boycott, as well as general reflections on race relations in the South.” 1956, Folder 2.,0.986,0.953,0.46,0. Accessed December 4th, 2019

Theoharis, Jeanne. “Boys Never Told Grandfather About ‘Incident.’” September 15th, 1955. Johnson Publishing Company. Pages 8-9. Accessed December 4th, 2019.

Washington, Linn. “U.S. drug laws have disproportionately affected Blacks.” Philadelphia Tribune, 1997, ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Accessed December 3rd, 2019.

Secondary Sources:

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow – Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The New Press, 2010.

Graff, Gilda. “Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph , and Then Despair.” Journal of Psychohistory (2015).

Kilgore, James. Understanding Mass Incarceration. New York, New York: The News Press, 2015.

“13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865)”