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Primary Sources

Breed, Reuben Leonard. The Immigrant Gateway: A Missionary Demonstration. (An Excerpt from a 1913 Play for Community or Church Groups to Stage about the Immigrant Experience.) | DPLA. Accessed October 24, 2018.

Coolidge, Calvin. “First State of the Union Address.” Address, December 6, 1923. Accessed November 11, 2018.

Commissioner of Immigration v. Gottlieb, 265 Library of Congress (May, 1924). Accessed November 9, 2018.

DuRant Smith, Ellison. “Shut the Door”: A Senator Speaks for Immigration Restriction. 68 Cong., Congressional Record. 1st sess., April 9,1924. Accessed November 11, 2018.

Joint resolution extending the Immigration Reform Act of 1921.  Sixty–Seventh Congress. Sess. II CHS. 186-188. 1922. Accessed November 11, 2018

“Melting Pot Ceremony at Ford English School, July 4, 1917.” Digital image. The Henry Ford. Accessed November 9, 2018.

“Membership in the Ku Klux Klan.” 1850 to 1900. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America. Accessed November 11, 2018.

Morgan, Jimmie, Walter Van Brunt, and Thomas Hoier. Don’t Bite the Hand That’s Feeding You. 1916. Audio. Library of Congress. Accessed October 26, 2018.

Nast, Thomas. “Pacific Chivalry.” Cartoon, August 7, 1869. Thomas Nast Cartoons. Accessed November 9, 2018.

O’Neil, Kathleen. “No Irish Need Apply.” Digital image. Library of Congress. 1862. Accessed November 11, 2018.

Riis, Jacob. Five Cents a Spot. 1889. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco. In San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. 1998. Accessed November 11, 2018.

Southern Labor Archives. Ku Klux Klan mailer asking reader to buy only American goods. 1940/1959. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America. Accessed November 11, 2018.

The Emergency Immigration Act of 1921. Sixty-Seventh Congress. Sess. I. CH. 8. 1921. Accessed November 11, 2018.

“The Only Way to Handle It.” Cartoon. In Literary Digest. The Library of Congress, 1921. Accessed November 11, 2018

Secondary Sources

Aaronovich Hourwich, Isaac. Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912.

Baron, Dennis. “Americanization and the Schools.” In The English-Only Question: An Official Language for Americans?,  New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1990. 133-76

Decker, Robert Julio. “Citizenship and Its Duties: The Immigration Restriction League as a Progressive Movement.” Immigrants & Minorities 32 (2). (2014): 2-23.

Higham, John. “Another Look at Nativism.” The Catholic Historical Review 44, no. 2 (1958): 147-58.

Hing, Bill Ong. “A Nation of Immigrants, a History of Nativism.” In To Be An American: Cultural Pluralism and the Rhetoric of Assimilation, New York; London: NYU Press, 1997. 13-31.

Hing, Bill Ong, and Anthony D. Romero. “The Xenophobic 1920s.” In Defining America: Through Immigration Policy. Temple University Press, 2004. 62-70.

Lee, Erika. “The Chinese Are Coming. How Can We Stop Them?: Chinese Exclusion and the Origins of American Gatekeeping.” In Asian American Studies Now: A Critical Reader, edited by Wu Jean Yu-wen Shen and Chen Thomas C., 143-67. Rutgers University Press, 2010.

MacLean, Nancy K. 1995. Behind the Mask of Chivalry. [Electronic Resource] : The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan. Academic Complete (Ebook Central). New York : Oxford University Press, 1995.

Wolfensberger, Don. “Congress and the Immigration Dilemma: Is a Solution in Sight?” For The Congress Project Seminar, March 12, 2007, 1-15.