Interrogating Identity–Literally

The word “identity” is often thrown around as if it is something constant that everyone has. However, identity can be incredibly difficult to navigate. In her novel Home Fire (2017), Kamila Shamsie tells the story of the Pasha siblings, who are British, Muslim, and orphaned. Parvaiz, twin of Aneeka and the only boy of the siblings, falls for ISIS propaganda because he feels lost, longs for a connection to his dead father, and because the racism and anti-Muslim violence of Britain make it difficult for him to construct an identity as a British Muslim. In Parvaiz’s narrative, Shamsie uses rhetorical questions to illustrate what Parvaiz comes to feel is the irreconcilability of the United Kingdom’s history of violence against Muslim people and British Muslim identity.

After he learns that his eldest sister, Isma, will be moving to America and selling the family home, Parvaiz drifts under the influence of Farooq, an older ISIS fighter who seeks to recruit him. In the process of recruiting Parvaiz, Farooq asks him a series of rhetorical questions that target Parvaiz’s precarious sense of national and religious identity.

M15 officers were present at Bagram, Farooq told him, and showed him evidence to corroborate that. Your government, the one that took taxes from your family and claimed to represent the people, knew what was going on. How can you live in this place, accepting, after all that you now know? How can you live in this mirage of democracy and freedom? What kind of man are you, what kind of son are you? (Shamsie 150-1)

These questions contain their own answers. By calling Parvaiz’s home “this place,” Farooq distances him from it. By juxtaposing his connection to Britain with Britain’s histories of violence and a lack of masculinity and family loyalty, Farooq makes it impossible for Parvaiz to answer that he can live in Britain. This quote is part of Parvaiz’s third-person internal monologue, which shows how Farooq’s questions have entered his mind and begun to shape every aspect of how he sees the world.

Farooq’s questions also get at a true inconsistency in Parvaiz’s supposed citizenship and belonging. Although Farooq’s intentions are manipulative, many of the images and facts that he presents to Parvaiz are accurate. Britain does participate in torture abroad, and racism at home. By presenting questions that contain their own answers, Shamsie demonstrates how untenable British Muslim identity is for Parvaiz.


Works Cited

Shamsie, Kamila. Home Fire. Riverhead Books, 2017.


2 thoughts on “Interrogating Identity–Literally

  1. I think that your response illuminates the points made in my analysis as you highlight whist there is some truth in what Farooq tells Parvaiz, it is also a manipulative tactic which causes him to view his identity in a black and white, absolutist manner. Your commentary on Shamsie’s use of rhetorical questions illuminates the way in which the realization of the significance of his Muslim identity distances him from his British identity. Furthermore it also highlights the way in which Shamsie includes the readers in Parvaiz’s innermost thoughts and gives the readers and understanding of the depth of the socio-political issues that Parvaiz faces. In highlighting these doubts and questions the readers are encouraged to question the impacts of Britains social constructs, demonstrating the way in which Shamsie provokes her readers to think about the impact of these constructs on British Muslims and to also develop a deeper understanding of the way in which Farooq manipulates Parvaiz.

  2. The explanation of the rhetorical questions Farooq asked Paraviz and how the answer was already revealed without a need for a reply, is an important part of the first half of the book, because it had a important role for why Parvaiz struggled with having a British Muslim identity, as you mentioned in your blog post.

    I think you did a splendid job with explaining this point. It was an internal battle Parvaiz had with himself, the want to fulfill his father’s legacy and be more in sync with his Muslim identity.

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