In Southern Tunisia, desertification has begun to impact citizens’ daily lives. Agriculture does not have enough water to continue operating, citizens’ homes are beginning to fill with sand, and food and water scarcity is at an all-time high. Climate change is causing people to suffer, and they may not have enough necessities.   The past […]

Rentierism Reflection

September 22, 2023 | 2 Comments

Oil rents do pose a threat to the political and social outcomes for MENA, but it is not the only cause of MENA’s “exceptionalism.” Taxation (and the lack of representation without it), spending, and group (non) formation are the factors that make up the rentier effect. The rentier effect also interacts with repression and modernization. […]

Anderson Reflection

September 15, 2023 | 1 Comment

Lisa Anderson analyzes past arguments of why MENA is exceptional regarding authoritarian regimes. She states, “In the United States, policymakers and political scientists alike…[project] American institutions, values, and purposes onto the rest of the world” (Anderson 2006, 191). There is an expectation for MENA to accept Western democracy. Anderson reiterates that the “third wave” of […]