Month: September 2023

Democracy and Oil

The conventional narrative attributes MENA’s unique political and social condition solely to the size of its oil rents, a closer examination of Michael L. Ross’s study, “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?” reveals that the situation is far trickier. Here we will delve into the multitude of factors at play in MENA, going beyond the sheer magnitude of oil rents to explore how they interact with various elements to shape the region’s destiny.

MENA’s reputation as an oil-rich region is well-deserved, but its socio-political intricacies stem from more than vast oil revenues. The distinction lies in the interactions between the oil revenues and a host of other factors. Michael Ross introduces three pivotal causal mechanisms—the rentier effect, the repression effect, and the modernization effect—that exhibit how oil rents engage in a dance with elements like taxation, government spending, military budgets, education, and urbanization.

Delving into the rentier effect, we uncover a phenomenon that transcends the notion of oil wealth solely enabling governments to maintain low tax rates and generously fund social programs. Kuwait serves as a striking example of this. The government’s reliance on oil revenues diminishes the necessity for imposing heavy taxes on its citizens. This fiscal situation alters the social contract between the state and its people. While citizens enjoy robust social programs, they have less leverage in holding the government accountable due to reduced dependence on domestic taxation revenue. However, it is not merely the size of oil rents that dictates outcomes but rather the wielding of these resources

In such nations, governments frequently allocate substantial resources to enhance their military capabilities. This phenomenon is referred to as the repression effect. A compelling case in point is Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom’s military prowess, fueled by its oil-driven economy, assumes a central role in maintaining internal stability, suppressing opposition movements, and ultimately perpetuating authoritarian rule.

Modernization, the trajectory of democracy and the overall social fabric are shaped by the entanglement between national revenue and factors encompassing occupational diversity, education, and urbanization etc. However, this is anything but straightforward, and in some cases, oil revenues can lead to adverse social outcomes while acting as a deterrent to democratic progress. In Qatar, investments of oil revenue have indeed accelerated progress towards modernization. The nation has impeccable infrastructure, quality education, and advanced healthcare, contributing to modernization. However, this has not necessarily translated into a flourishing democracy. The Qatari government’s centralized control has led to limited political freedoms and restrictions on civic participation. Simultaneously furthering harmful social consequences, such as constrained civil liberties and political pluralism.

In essence, while the size of oil rents undeniably contributes to MENA’s realities, it’s the interplay with power structures and accompanying socio-economics conditions that truly shape the region’s unique challenges.


Reference: Ross, Michael L. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?” World Politics, vol. 53, no. 3, 2001, pp. 325–61. JSTOR,















Lisa Anderson Reflection

Understanding the political forces at play in the Middle East has long been a challenging task for scholars and policymakers alike. The aim here is to provide an analysis of the issues highlighted by Anderson and explore ways for mitigating these challenges. This can be accomplished while also evaluating the extent to which the Arab uprisings of 2010-2011 have reshaped the discourse on the region.

Lisa Anderson’s critique draws attention to several fundamental issues that hinder an all-encompassing comprehension of the region.

One of the central problems identified by her is the extensive use of Western-centric models of democracy and governance when assessing the Middle East. This often leads to the inappropriate application of Western benchmarks to the region, such as competitive elections and multiparty systems. Such approaches fail to consider the uniqueness of Middle Eastern societies, including deeply entrenched authoritarian power structures and the significance of tribal and religious affiliations. For example, the belief that free and fair elections will inevitably lead to Western-style democracy overlooks the role of religious and sectarian identities in shaping electoral results. Countries like Iraq and Lebanon have shown that election results can deviate significantly from Western expectations due to the influence of religious and sectarian affiliations.

Another significant challenge lies in the essentialist view that Middle Eastern societies are inherently resistant to democracy due to cultural or religious factors. This perspective often characterizes the entire region as monolithic, disregarding the great diversity within and among the nations. These societies encompass a spectrum of attitudes toward democracy, ranging from fervent advocacy for secular democratic reforms to support for democracy with Islamic principles. The Arab uprisings of 2010-2011 illustrate this diversity, as different countries within the region experienced varying outcomes, from democratization to civil conflict.

A third challenge highlighted by Anderson is the overemphasis on democratization as the sole lens through which to analyze the politics of the region. This limited scope can overshadow other factors that shape the region’s landscape, including state-building, governance, and identity politics. For instance, the enduring monarchies in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states challenge the presumption that democracy is the inevitable result of political development. The coexistence of authoritarian regimes and widespread welfare provisions in these monarchies highlights the intricacy of governance in the Middle East.

The Arab uprisings have undeniably transformed the conversation on Middle Eastern politics. These uprisings, driven by popular mobilization and grassroots movements, have reshaped the region’s politics, and challenged the resilience of authoritarian regimes. While the outcomes have been diverging, with some countries experiencing limited democracy and others descending into conflict, these uprisings emphasize the significance of civil society and popular movements in catalyzing change in the region. This has led to a shift in academic pursuits, which are more nuanced and explore multiple facets rather than taking recourse to homogenous ideation.

To address these challenges a context specific approach is essential. Instead of applying preconceived notions of democratization to the region, we should engage in an analysis of its historical legacies, acknowledging the persisting impact of imperialism, colonialism and post-colonial state-building processes on institutions and societal structures. We must also realize that the events unfolding in the region presently and in the past are full of contradictions and ambiguity which must be embraced rather than oversimplified through broad generalizations.


Reference: Anderson, Lisa. “SEARCHING WHERE THE LIGHT SHINES: Studying Democratization in the Middle East.” Annual Review of Political Science 9, no. 1 (June 1, 2006): 189–214.

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