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. . . . . .A Romantic Natural History         


(Updated: 327 entries as of 9/2013)


Abernethy, John. An Enquiry into the Probability and Rationality of Mr Hunter’s “Theory of Life”. London: Longman. etc., 1814.

Adams, A. B. Eternal Quest: The Story of the Great Naturalists. New York: Putnam, 1969.

Agassiz, L. Recherches sur le Poissons Fossiles. 5 vols. Neuchatel, 1833-43.

_________. Etudes sur les Glaciers. Neuchatel (1840). Trans. A. V. Carozzi. New York: Hafner, 1967.

_________. On the succession and development of organized beings at the surface of the terrestrial globe. Edinburgh, New Philosophical Journal 23 (1842): 388-99.

Aikin, Anna (later Barbauld). Poems. London: Joseph Johnson, 1794.

Aikin, John. An Essay on the Application of Natural History to Poetry. Warrington: W. Eyres for J. Johnson of London, 1777.

_________. The Natural History of the Year. Ed. Arthur Aikin. London: J. Johnson, 1798 [multiple editions to 1815].

Aldini, Giovanni. An Account of the Late Improvements in Galvanism. London: Cutshall and Martin, John Murray, 1803.

_____________. General Views on the Application of Galvanism to Medical Purposes; principally in cases of suspended animation. London: J. Callow, 1819.

Allen, David Elliston. The Naturalist in Britain. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994.

Altick, Richard D. The Shows of London. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 1978.

Andrews, Tamra. A Dictionary of Nature Myths. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.

Audubon, John James. Ornithological Biography; or, an account of the habits of the birds of the United Sattes of America. Edinburgh: Adam Black, 1831.

__________________. The Original Water-Color Paintings by John James Audubon for the Birds of America. New York: American Heritage, 1966.



Baine, Rodney M. The Scattered Portions: William Blake’s Biological Symbolism. Athens, Ga.: [author], 1986.

Baird, Spencer Fullerton. History of North American Birds. Boston, 1875–1884; Land Birds, 3 vols., Water Birds, 2 vols.

____________________. Mammals of North America: Descriptions based on Collections in the Smithsonian Institution. Philadelphia, 1859.

Barber, L. The Heyday of Natural History: 1820-1870. London: Jonathan Cape, 1980.

Barrow, John. An Account of Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa in the Years 1797 and 1798. London, 1801.

Barton, William P. C. Medical Botany. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea, 1825.

Bartram, John. Observations on the inhabitants, Climate, soil, rivers, productions worthy of notice, made by John Bartram in his travels from Pennsylvania to Onondaga, Oswego, and the Lake Ontario in Canada. London: J. Whiston & B. White, 1751.

___________. A Description of East Florida with a Journal kept by John Bartram, of Philadelphia, Botanist to His Majesty for the Floridas. London, 1766.

Bartram, William. The Travels of William Bartram (1791). New York, 1955.

_______________. Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida. London: James and Johnson, 1791; New York: Penguin, 1988 [1791].

Bate, Jonathan. “Culture and Environment: From Austen to Hardy,” New Literary History 30.3 (1999) 541-560.

____________. Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition. London: Routledge, 1991.

____________. The Song of the Earth. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000.

Baylis, Edward. A new and compleat body of practical botanic physic from the medicinal plants of the vegetable kingdom. London: Stace and Maids, 1791.

Bell, Thomas. A History of British Reptiles. London: J. Van Voorst, 1839.

Bellanca, Mary Ellen. Daybooks of Discovery: Nature Diaries in Britain: 1770-1870. Charlottesville and London: U of Virginia P, 2007.

Bewick, Thomas. A General History of Quadrupeds. Newcastle: S. Hodgson, Beilby, Bewick, 1790.

______________.History of British Birds. 2 vols. Newcastle: Hodgson, 1797.

______________.The New Museum of Natural History. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1810.

______________. History of British Birds. Newcastle: Cook, 1832.

Bichat, Marie François Xavier. Physiological Researches on Life and Death. Trans. F. Gold. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1815.

Blake, William. Complete Writings. Ed. Geoffrey Keynes. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1976.

Bondeson, Jan. The Feejee Mermaid. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1999.

Bonta, Marcia Myers. Women in the Field: America’s Pioneering Women Naturalists. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 1991.

Branch, Michael P., ed. Reading the Roots: American Nature Writing before Walden. Athens, GA, & London: U of Georga P, 2004.

Brown, William Rust. The Emerson Museum: Practical Romanticism and the Pursuit of the Whole. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997.

Bruce, James. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile. London, 1790.

Bryson, Michael A. Visions of the Land: Science, Literature, and the American Environment from the Era of Exploration to the Age of Ecology. Charlottesville & London: U P of Virginia, 2002.

Buckland, W. Notice on the Megalosaurus, or Great Fossil Lizard of Stonesfield. Transactions of the Geological Society of London (1824) 1:119-30.

___________. Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology. 2 vols. London: William Pickering, 1836.

___________. Vindiciae Geologicae, or, the Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1820.

Buell, Lawrence. The Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995.

Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de. Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere. 15 vols. Paris, 1749-67.

___________________________________. The System of Natural History. Ed. R.. Morison. Edinburgh, 1791.

___________________________________. The Natural History of Insects, compiled from Swammerdam, Brookes, Goldsmith. 1792 [bound together with Buffon, System, 1791].

___________________________________. Barr’s Buffon: Buffon’s Natural History; containing a theory of the Earth. 10 vols. London: J. S. Barr, 1792.

Burchell, William J. Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa. London, 1822.

Burnett, T. The Sacred Theory of the Earth. 2 vols. London: Walter Kettilby, 1690.

Byron, George Gordon, Lord. The Complete Poetical Works of Byron. Ed. Paul E. More. Boston: Houghton Mifflin/ The Riverside Press, 1933.

_______________________. Byrons Letters & Journals. Ed. Leslie A. Marchand. 12 vols. Cambridge, MA: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 1973-82.


Catesby, Mark. The Natural History of the Carolinas, Florida, and the Bahamas. London: George Edwards, 1754.

[Chambers, Robert]. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. London: Churchill, 1844.

Clare, John. Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery. London: Taylor and Hessey, 1820.

__________. The Rural Muse. London: Whittaker, 1835.

Cochrane, Archibald. A treatise shewing the intimate connection that subsists between agriculture and chemistry. London: J. Murray and S. Hoghley, 1795.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Anima Poetae. Ed. E. H. Coleridge. London: Heinemann, 1895.

_____________________. Biographia Literaria. Ed. James Engell and W. J. Bate. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1983.

_____________________. Poetical Works (1912). Ed. E. H. Coleridge. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1969.

Colletta, W. John. “‘Writing Larks’: Jon Clare’s Semiosis of Nature,” The Wordsworth Circle 28:3 (1997): 192-200.

Collins, Samuel. Paradise retriev’d: plainly and fully demonstrating the most beautiful, durable and beneficial method of managing and improving fruit-trees. London: J. Collins, 1717.

Comstock, J. L. Natural History of Birds. Hartford: Robinson, 1830.

Conybeare, W. D. On the Discovery of an almost perfect skeleton of the Plesiosaurus. Transactions of the Geological Society of London (1824) 1: 381-89.

Cook, James and James King. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (1776-80). Dublin: Chamberlaine, 1784.

Crook, Nora and Derek Guiton. Shelley’s Venomed Melody. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986.

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004 [1986].

Culpeper, N. A Physicall Directory; or, A translation of the London Dispensatory Made by the College of Physicians in London. London, 1649.

__________. The Complete Herbal. London, 1847.

Cunningham, Andrew and Nicholas Jardine, eds. Romanticism in the Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.

Cuvier, Georges L. C. F. D. Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. Trans. William Ross. 2 vols. London: Longman and Rees, 1802.

_______________________. Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles de Quadrupedes. 4 vols. Paris: Chez Deterville, 1812. [1835 ed. in English]

_______________________. Essay on the Theory of the Earth. Trans. R. Kerr. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1813.

_______________________. Le Regne Animal Distribue d’apres son Organisation. 4 vols. Paris, 1817.

_______________________. Memoirs pour servir a l’histoire et a l’anatomie des mollusques. Paris, 1817.

_______________________. Georges Cuvier, Fossil Bones, and Geological Catastrophes. Ed. and Trans. Martin J. S. Rudwick. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.



Darwin, Charles. Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H. M. S. “Beagle” Round the World. London: John Murray, 1890 [1845]: Henry Colburn, 1839.

______________. Charles Darwin’s Letters: A Selection. Ed. Frederick Burkhardt. Cambridge: Cambridge U Press, 1996.

______________. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin. New York: Norton, 1969.

______________. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: John Murray, 1859.

______________. Charles Darwin’s “Beagle” Diary. Ed. R. D. Keynes. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

______________. Charles Darwin’s Zoology Notes & Specimen Lists from H. M. S. Beagle. Cambridge: Cambrisge UP, 2000.

Darwin, Erasmus. The Botanic Garden, containing The Loves of Plants, a Poem with Philosophical Notes. London: Litchfield, 1789.

_____________. The Botanic Garden: A Poem in Two Parts. London: J. Johnson, 1791-94.

_____________. Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life. 2 vols. London: J. Johnson, 1794-96.

_____________. The Temple of Nature: or the Origin of Society. London: J. Johnson, 1803.

_____________. The Letters of Erasmus Darwin. Ed. Desmond King-Hele. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981.

Darwin, Robert Waring. Principia Botanica; or, a Concise and Easy Introduction to the Sexual Botany of Linnaeus. Newark: M. Hage, 1810.

Davy, Sir Humphry. “An Essay on the Generation of Phosoxygen (Oxygen Gas) and on the Causes of Colours of Organic Beings,” in Contributions to Physical and Medical Knowledge. Coll. Thomas Beddoes. Bristol: Biggs and Cottle, 1799.

________________.A Discourse, introductory to a course of lectures on Chemistry, delivered in the Theatre of the Royal Insitution, 21 January 1802. London: J. Johnson, 1802.

________________.Fragmentary remains, literary and scientific. Ed. John Davy. London: John Churchill, 1858.

[Davy, Sir Humphry] Salmonia: or days of fly fishing. By an Angler. London: John Murray, 1828.

De Almeida, Hermione. Romantic Medicine and John Keats. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991.

Descriptive Poetry; being a selection from the best modern authors; principally having reference to subjects in Natural History. London, 1807. [works by Burns, Coleridge, Charlotte Smith, Southey, Moore, Mrs. Opie, Spenser, Blair, etc.]

DeVoto, Bernard, ed. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997 [1953].

A Dictionary of Natural History; or, Complete Summary of Zoology, containing a full and succinct description of all the animated beings in nature. London: Whittingham, 1802.

Dramatic Romances: containing “The Poison Tree” and “The Torrid Zone.” London: John Murray, 1809.

Drummond, William Hamilton. The Giant’s Causeway: A Poem. Belfast, 1811.

_________________________. The Rights of Animals, and Man’s Obligation to Treat them with Humanity. London: J. Mardon, 1838.



Eamon, William. Science and the Secrets of Nature. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994.

Easterlin, Nancy. A Biocultural Approach to Literary Theory and Interpretation. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 2012

Elam, Charles H., ed. The Peale Family. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1967.

Ellis, John. “A botanical description of the Dionaea muscipula, or Venus’s fly trap. A newly-discovered sensitive plant: in a letter to Sir Charles Linnaeus,” in Directions for bringing over seeds and plants from the East-Indies and other distant countries. London: L. Davis, 1770), pp. 35-41.

_________. “On the nature of the Gorgonia; that it is a real marine animal, and not of a mixed nature, between animal and vegetable. Philosophical Transactions, 66 (1776), 1-17.

Elman, Robert. First in the Field. New York: Mason Charter, 1977.



Farley, John. The Spontaneous Generation Controversy from Descartes to Oparin. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1974.

Feldman, Paula R. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Fellow Romantics. Ed. Beth Lau. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009.

Fontana, Felix. Treatise on the Venom of the Viper; on the American poisons; and on the Cherry Laurel; and some other Vegetable Poisons, to which are annexed, observations on the primitive structure of the animal body; different experiments on the reproduction of the nerves; and a description of a new canal of the eye. Trans. Joseph Skinner. 2 vols. London: J. Murray, 1807 [Florence, 1781].

Fortey, Richard. Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billions Years of Life on Earth. New York: Random House, 1997.

Fothergill, Charles. An Essay on the Philosophy, Study, and Use of Natural History. London: White and Cochran, 1813.

Frick, G. F. And R. P. Stearns. Mark Catesby: the Colonial Audubon. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1961.

Fry, Carroll L. Charlotte Smith. New York: Twayne, 1996.

Fulford, Tim. “Coleridge, Darwin, Linnaeus: The Sexual Politics of Botany,” The Wordsworth Circle 28:3 (1997): 124-30.

___________ and Peter J. Kitson, eds., Romanticism and Colonialism: Writing and Empire, 1780-1830. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

___________ and Debbie Lee and Peter J. Kitson. Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.



Galvani, Luigi. Commenatry on the effects of electricity on muscular motion. With a facsimile of De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius [1791]. Trans. Margaret G. Foley. Norwalk, Conn.: Burndy Library, 1953.

Garden, Alexander. “An account of the Gymnotus electricus or electrical eel.” Philosophical Transactions, 65 (1775), 102-110.

Gasking, Elizabeth B. Investigations into Generation, 1651-1828. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1967.

Gaull, Marilyn. “Natural History and Its Illusion,” in English Romanticism: The Human Context. New York: Norton, 1988.

Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, E. Philosophie Anatomique. Paris: Mequignon-Marvis, 1818.

Gemmil, James Fairlie. Natural History in the Poetry of Robert Burns. Glasgow: N. Adshead, 1928.

Godman, John D. American Natural History. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea, 1828.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Goethe on Science. Sel. Jeremy Naydler. Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1996.

Goldsmith, Oliver. An History of the Earth and Animated Nature. 8 vols. London, 1774 [editions to 1819].

Goodman, Nathan G. Benjamin Rush: Physician and Citizen. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1934.

Gottlieb, Evan ad Juliet Shields. Representing Place in British Literature and Culture, 1660-1830. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2013.

Gould, Stephen Jay. Time’s Arrow, Time’s Cycle: Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987.

Grabo, Carl. A Newton Among Poets: Shelley’s Use of Science. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1930.

__________. The Magic Plant: The Growth of Shelley’s Thought. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1936.

Gray, Asa. A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States. Boston & Cambridge, 1848.

Gray, Thomas. The Poet Gray as Naturalist (1903). [BL Cup.510.Sac.3].

Gronovius, J. F. “Concerning a water insect, which, beign cut into several pieces, becomes so many perfect animals,” Philosophical Transactions, 466 (1742), 218-20.



Haley, William. Ballads, founded on anecdotes relating to animals, with prints designed and engraved by Wm. Blake. London: R. Phillips, 1805.

Hanley, Wayne. Natural History in America: From Mark Catesby to Rachel Carson. New York: Quadrangle, 1977.

Heck, J. G. Iconographic Encyclopedia. Trans. Spencer Fullerton Baird. 4 vols. New York: Garrigue, 1851.

Heringman, Noah. Romantic Rocks, Aesthetic Geology. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2004.

_______________, ed. Romantic Science: The Literary Forms of Natural History. Albany: State U of New York P, 2003.

Herschel, J. F. W. Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1831.

Hoage, R. J. and William A. Deiss, eds. New Worlds, New Animals: From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1996.

Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science. New York: Pantheon, 2009.

Hooke, R. Micrographia: or some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses, with Observations and Inquiries thereupon. London, 1665.

________. The Posthumous Works of Robert Hooke, M.D. London: Smith and Walford, 1705.

Hunter, John. “Experiments on animals and vegetables, with respect to the power of producing heat,” Philosophical Transactions, 65 (1775), 446-58.

___________. Observations on Certain Parts of the Animal Oeconomy. London, 1786).

Hutton, J. Theory of the Earth; or an investigation of the laws observable in the composition, dissolution, and restoration of land upon the globe. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1788) 1:209-304.

________. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1795.



Irmscher, Christoph. A Keener Perception: Ecocritical Studies in American Art History. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2009.

________________. The Poetics of Natural History: From John Bartram to William James. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1999.



Jardine, Nicholas and J. A. Secord and E. C. Spary. Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996.

Jardine, Sir William. The Natural History of Monkeys. Edinburgh: Lizars, 1833.

Jauffret, Louis Francois. Visits to the Menagerie (1801) [BL 7206.a.17].

Jenner, Edward. A Flora of Tunbridge Wells. Tunbridge Wells: J. Colbran, 1845.

Jones, Christine Kenyon. Kindred Brutes: Animals in Romantic Period Writing. Hampshire: Ashgate, 2001.

____________________. “‘When this world shall be former’: Catastrophism as Imaginative Theory for the Younger Romantics.” Romanticsim on the Net 24 (November 2001): <http://users.ox.ac.uk/~scat0385/24jones.html>

Jones, W. P. The Rhetoric of Science. London: Routledge, 1966.

Jordanova, Ludmilla J., ed. Languages of Nature: Critical Essays on Science and Literature. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1986.



Kalm, Peter. Travels in North America, ed. Carl Adolph Benson. New York, 1937.

Kastner, Joseph. A Species of Eternity. New York: Knopf, 1977.

Keats, John. The Complete Poems. Ed. Miriam Allott. New York: Longman, 1970.

Keegan, Bridget and James C. McKusick. Literature and Nature: Four Centuries of  Nature Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Kelley, Theresa M. Clandestine Marriage: Botany and Romantic Culture. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 2012.

Kenyon-Jones, Christine. Kindred Brutes: Animals in Romantic-Period Writing. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

Kerr, Robert. A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels. Edinburgh: Ramsay, 1811.

King-Hele, Desmond. Erasmus Darwin. New York: Scribner’s, 1963.

_________________. Erasmus Darwin and the Romantic Poets. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1986.

_________________. Erasmus Darwin: A Life of Unequalled Achievement. London: Giles de la Mare, 1999.

Kirby, William and William Spence. 4 vols. An Introduction to Entomology: or elements of the natural history of Insects. London: Longman et al, 1815-26 [I (1815), II (1817), III & IV (1826)].

Knapp, J. L. The Jounal of a Naturalist. London: John Murray, 1829.

Koyre, Alexandre. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1957.

Kroeber, Karl. Ecological Literary Criticism: Romantic Imagining and the Biology of Mind. New York: Columbia UP, 1994.

____________. “Proto-Evolutionary Bards and Post-Ecological Critics,” Keats-Shelley Journal 48 (1999): 157-72.



Lamarck, J. B. La Flore Francais, Paris, 1778.

___________. Systeme des Animaux sans Vertebres. Paris: Chez Deterville, 1801.

___________. Philosophie Zoologique.. Paris: Chez Dentu, 1809; H. Elliott, trans. Macmillan, London 1914, U of Chicago 1984.

___________. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres. 7 vols. Paris, 1815-22.

The Language of Flowers. 9th American ed. Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea, 1852.

La Roucefoucault-Liancourt, Francois A. F., Duke de.Travels through the United States of North America. London: R. Phillips, 1799.

Lashmet, David. “Unfurling the Worm: Insecto-theology in William Blake’s Thel.” Hypertexts and Textual Studies, Graduate Conference on Romanticism. Emory U, 1996. <http://prometheus.cc.emory.edu/panels/1A/D.Lashmet.html>

The Law of Java; or, the Poison Tree, a play in three acts. London: J. L. Marks, 1816.

Lawrence, William. An Introduction to Comparative Anatomy, being two introductory lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons. London: J. Callow, 1816.

_______________. Lectures on Physiology, Zoology and the Natural History of Man. London: J. Callow, 1819.

Linnaeus, Carolus. Systema Naturae. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii Holmiae, 1735. [10th ed. 1758].

_______________. A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants. Trans. James Edward Smith. London: George Nicol, 1786 [1760].

_______________. Systema Natura. Facsimile of the first edition (1735). Trans. of “Observations” by M. S. J. Engel-Ledeboer and H. Engel. Nieuwkoop: B. de Graf, 1964.

_______________. Amoenitates Academicae. 7 vols. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii Holmiae, 1749-69.

_______________. Species Plantarum. 1753; London, 1959.

_______________. A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants. London, 1786.

_______________. Lapland Journey (Lachesis Lapponica), trans. Carl Troilius, ed. James Edward Smith. London, 1792.

_______________. A Selection of the Correspondence of Linnaeus and Other Naturalists, ed. James Edward Smith. London, 1821.

Literature and Science: 1660-1834. Ed. Judith Hawley, Charlotte Grant, Richard Hamblyn, Cheryce Kramer, Clark Lawlor, Michael Newton et al. Volumes on Science as Polite Culture, Sciences of Body and Mind, Earthly Powers, Flora, Fauna, Astronomy, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2002-03.

Logan, James. Experiments and Considerations on the Generation of Plants. London: C. Davis, 1747.

Loudon, Jane Webb. The Entertaining Naturalist. London: Henry Bohn, 1843.

Lovejoy, A. O. The Great Chain of Being: A Study in the History of an Idea. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1964.

Lussier, Mark. “Blakes’ Deep Ecology,” Studies in Romanticism 35 (1996): 393-408.

Lyell, C. Principles of Geology: Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth’s Surface by References to Causes Now in Operation. 3 vols. London, 1830-33.

_______. Life, Letters, and Journals of Sir Charles Lyell. New York: AMS, 1881.



Mabey, Richard, ed. The Oxford Book of Nature Writing. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.

Macgillivray, William. A History of British Birds. London: Scott, Webster and Geary, 1837.

Makdisi, Saree. Romantic Imperialism: Universal Empire and the Culture of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

Malamud, Randy. Reading Zoos: Representations of Animals and Captivity. New York: New York UP, 1998.

Malthus, Thomas. R. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson, 1826 [1798].

Manual of the Practical Naturalist. Boston: Lilly and Wait, 1831.

Marshall, Tim. Murdering to Dissect: Grave-robbing, Frankenstein and the Anatomy Literature. Machester: Manchester UP, 1995.

Martyn, William Frederic. A New Dictionary of Natural History; or, Compleat Universal Display of Animated Nature with accurate representations of the most curious and beautiful animals. 2 vols. London: Harrison, 1785.

McCarthy, William and Elizabeth Kraft, eds. The Poems of Anna Letitia Barbauld. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1994.

McIntyre, Clara Frances. Ann Radcliffe in Relation to Her Time. New Haven: Yale UP, 1920.

McKusick, James C. “Coleridge and the Economy of Nature,” Studies in Romanticism 35 (1996): 375-90.

Meisel, Max. A Bibliography of American Natural History: The Pioneer Century, 1769-1865. 3 vols. Brooklyn: Premier, 1924-29.

Miles, Robert. Ann Radcliffe: The Great Enchantress. New York: Manchester UP, 1995.

Miller, John. An Illustration of the Sexual System of Linnaeus. London: Miller, 1799.

Morton, Timothy. The Ecological Thought. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2010.

______________. Ecology Without Natue: Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2007.

______________. The Poetics of Spice. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

______________. “Shelley’s Green Desert,” Studies in Romanticism 35 (Fall 1996): 409-30.

______________. Shelley and the Revolution in Taste: The Body and the Natural World. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994.

Murchison, R. I. The Silurian System. London, 1839.

Murray, E. B. Ann Radcliffe. New York: Twayne, 1972.

Murray, John A., editor. Wild Africa: Three Centuries of Nature Writing from Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.



Nash, Roderick. “The Cultural Significance of the American Wilderness,” in Wilderness and the Quality of Life, ed. Maxine McCloskey and James P. Gilligan. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1969: 66-73.

Newman, John B. The Illustrated Botany. New York: Wellman, 1846.

Nichols, Ashton. “The Anxiety of Species: Toward a Romantic Natural History,” The Wordsworth Circle 28.3 (1997): 130-36.

_____________. Beyond Romantic Ecocriticism: Toward Urbanatural Roosting. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

_____________. “An Empire of Exotic Nature: William Blake’s Botanic and Zoomorphic Imagery,” The Reception of Blake in the Orient. Ed. Steve Clark and Masashi Suzuki (London: Continuum P, 2006): 121-134.

_____________, ed. Romantic Natural Histories: William Wordsworth, Charles Darwin, and Others. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004.

_____________. “Roaring Alligators and Burning Tygers: Poetry and Science from William Bartram to Charles Darwin,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society , 149:3 (2005): 304-15.

Norton, Charles Eliot. The Poet Gray as Naturalist: with selections from his notes on the Systemma Naturae of Linnaeus. Boston: Charles Goodspeed, 1903.

Nuttall, Thomas. A Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and Canada. Boston: Hillard, Gray, 1834.


Oerlemans, Onno Dag. “‘The Meanest Thing that Feels’: Anthropomorphizing Animals in Romanticism,” Mosaic 27.1: 1-32.

__________________. “Romanticism and the Metaphysics of Species,” The Wordsworth Circle 28.3 (1997): 136-48.

__________________. Romanticism and the Materiality of Nature. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2002.

Orlean, Susan. The Orchid Thief: A True Story of Beauty and Obsession. New York, Ballantine, 2000.



Paley, William. Natural Theology: or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected from the appearances of nature. London: L. Faulder, 1803 [4th ed.].

Park, Mungo. Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa. London, 1799.

Parsons, JamesPhilosophical Observations on the Analogy Between the Propagation of Animals and that of Vegetables: In which are answered some Objections against the indivisibility of the Soul, which have been inadvertently drawn from the late curious and useful Experiments upon the Polypus and other Animals, with an Explanation of the Manner in which each Piece of a divided Polypus becomes another perfect animal of the same species. London: C. David, 1752.

Patterson, Daniel and Roger Thompson. Early American Nature Writers: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2008).

Pennant, Thomas. British Zoology. London, 1776.

______________. History of Quadrupeds. London: B. White, 1781.

______________. British Zoology. New edition. 4 vols. London: Wilkie & Robinson et al., 1812.

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Phillips, J. Figures and Descriptions of the Paleozoic Fossils of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset. London, 1841.

A Philosophical Essay on Fecundation; or, an Impartial Inquiry into the first rudiments of progression of animal generation, particularly of the human species, by a member of the Society [for Propagating Human Nature and Knowledge]. London: J. Roberts, 1742.

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Priestley, JosephThe History and Present State of Electricity. London: Dodsley, Johnson, Davenport & Cadell, 1767.

______________. Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air. London: J. Johnson, 1774.

______________. Disquisitions Relating to Matter and Spirit. London: J. Johnson, 1777.

Priestman, Martin. Romantic Atheism. Cambridge: Canmbridge UP, 2000.


Q & R

Ray, John. Catalogus Plantarum circa Cantabrium nascentium. Cambridge: J. Field, 1660.

________. The Ornithology of Francis Willoughby. London: John Martyn, 1678.

________. Historia Plantarum. 3 vols. London: Henry Faithorne, 1686-1704

________. The Wisdom of God Manifested in Works of Creation. London: Samuel Smith, 1691.

________. Miscellaneous Discourses Concerning the Dissolution and Changes of the World London: Samuel Smith, 1692.

Rease, D. Meredith. Rudiments of Zoology. Philadelphia: Sorin and Ball, 1847.

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Richardson, Alan. British Romanticism and the Science of the Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

______________. “Erasmus Darwin and the Fungus School.” The Wordsworth Circle, 33:3 (Summer 2002): 113-4

Richardson, Edgar P. et al. Charles Willson Peale and His World. New York: Abrams, 1982.

Rigby, Kate. Topographies of the Sacred: The Poetics of Place in European Romanticism. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2004.

Ritterbush, Philip C. Overtures to Biology: The Speculations of Eighteenth-Century Naturalists. New Haven: Yale, 1964.

Ritvo, Harriet. The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victoraian Age. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1987.

____________. The Platypus and the Mermaid and Other Figments of the Classifying Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1997.

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Rush, Benjamin. An Inquiry Into the Natural History of Medicine Among the Indians, 1789 (originally read in 1774 before the American Philosophical Society).

_____________. Three Lectures Upon Animal Life. Philadelphia: Budd and Bartram, 1799.

_____________. Account of the Bilious remitting Yellow Fever. Philadelphia: Dobson, 1794.

Rushton, Sharon.  ”The Application of Natural History to Poetry.” University of Liverpool: Center for Poetry and Science. Liverpool, 2011. http://www.poetryandscience.co.uk/essays…


Salmon, W. Botanologia. The English Herbal: or History of Plants. London, 1710.

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________________. The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origin of Modern Science. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1989.

Schofield, Robert E. Mechanism and Materialism: British Natural Philosophy in an Age of Reason. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1970.

Schwartz. Janelle. Worm Work: Recasting Romanticism. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2012.

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Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Shelley’s Poetry and Prose. Ed. Donald H. Reiman and Sharon B. Powers. New York: Norton, 1977.

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Sims, Michael. Darwin’s Orchestra: An Analysis of Nature in History and the Arts. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

Slaughter, Thomas P. The Natures of John and William Bartram. New York: Knopf, 1996.

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Sterling, Keir B. Natural Science in America. New York: Arno Press, 1974.

Stephenson, Glennis. Letitia Landon: The Woman Behind L. E. L. New York: Manchester UP, 1995.



Temkin, O. “Basic Science, Medicine, and the Romantic Era,” in The Double Face of Janus. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1977.

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Uglow, Jenny. The Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose Curiosity Changed the World. New York: Farrar, Starus, Giroux, 2002.



Valli, Eusebius. Experiments on Animal Electricity, with their application to physiology. And some pathological and medical observations. London: J. Johnson, 1793.

Volta, Alessandro. “Account of some discoveries made by Mr. Galvani, of Bologna,” Philosophical Transactions, 83 (1793), 10-44.



Wayburn, Peggy. “Nature and Democracy,” in Wilderness and the Quality of Life, ed. Maxine McCloskey and James Gilligan. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1969: 63-66.

Weissmann, Gerald. Darwin’s Audubon: Science and the Liberal Imagination. New York: Plenum, 1998.

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White, Gilbert. The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne. London: T. Bensley: 1789.

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Wilson, Eric G. Emerson’s Sublime Science. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999.

____________. Romantic Turbulence: Chaos, Ecology, and American Space. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

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Woodward, J. An Essay toward a Theory of the Earth and Terrestrial Bodies, especially Minerals; and also of the Seas, Rivers, and Springs. London: Wilkin, 1695.

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__________________. The Prelude: 1799,1805, 1850. Ed. Jonathan Wordsworth, M. H. Abrams, Stephen Gill. New York: Norton, 1979.

Worster, Donald. Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994 [1977].

Wulf, Andrea. The Brother Gardeners: Botany, Empire, and the Birth of an Obession. New York: Random House, 2008.

Wylie, Ian. Young Coleridge and the Philosophers of Nature. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1989.


X & Y & Z

Yolton, John W. Thinking Matter: Materialism in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1983.

Young, David. The Discovery of Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992.


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