Author: Charles Darwin (1802-1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, whose contributions to evolutionary theory were significant. He was born into a wealthy family, and his father was a doctor, which Darwin almost pursued as a career path. His family was largely Unitarian. Darwin was highly critical of the Bible as a source of history, and traveled the world in order to disprove many of the Bible’s scientific stances.
Context: 1859, when much of the world believed in the Bible as an explanation for the science of the natural world. Many people believed that the world and every species on it were created by God. Darwin sought to disprove this.
Language: Darwin writes using many basic scientific terms, but in a way that is understandable.
Audience: Darwin writes for a population interested in scientific theory, perhaps written for those who previously had doubts about Biblical scientific explanations. His audience does not need an extensive background knowledge in science.
Intent: Darwin writes in order to inform people of the way in which evolution occurs, disproving certain Biblical theories. He wants to provoke thought among a large population, inspiring a naturalistic rather than Biblical approach to science. Furthermore, Darwin writes in order to provide a wider pool of opinions and beliefs.
Message: There are more species born than can survive, which creates a struggle for existence among species. Survival is determined by those who have even the slightest advantage, which will turn the balance. These advantages give a being significant benefits where its survival is concerned. This theory of natural selection accounts for the extinction of certain species and the survival of others.