Author: Comte de Saint-Simon
– Born October 17th, 1760 in France and died May 19th 1825 in Paris.
– Belonged to a poor aristocratic family, had a bumpy education, and joined the army at 17.
– Aided the Americans in the Revolutionary War.
– Gained wealth due to the Reign of Terror, but quickly became bankrupt and attempted to take his own life.
– Wrote during a very tumultuous time in France’s history, before industrialization.
– Witnessed the hight of the French Revolution, and the rise of Napoleon.
– He often uses a fairly sarcastic tone to mock society and its views.
– He uses casual speech, and attacks certain parties in his essay.
– He has a very jaded view and it is present in his work, most likely caused by the state of his life (see above).
-He most likely seems to be speaking to his peers, since he does not speak in an explanatory tone, but a casual one.
-He is trying to convince his peers that something is amiss in society.
-He is trying to show that the economy is broken.
– Laissez-faire, laissez-passer! does not help the common people.
– “Will they bear their misery patiently because statistical calculations prove that in future years they will have food to appease their hunger?”
Author: Karl Marx
– Born May 5th, 1818 in Trier, died March 14th 1883 in London.
– Born into a wealthy middle-class family, was educated at the universities of Bonn and Berlin.
– Moved to France, but was later exiled to England.
-Briefly wrote fiction, as well as nonfiction.
– His views and works were extremely liberal at the time, and he had issues publishing his works.
– Was active during the rise of Communism, and wrote in its favor.
-His works quickly started dramatic changes in Europe (especially after publishing the Communist Manifesto in 1848).
– Can be rather poetic at times, with repetition commonly seen in poems.
– Use of philosophical rhetoric commonly seen in Plato and Socrates’ work.
– Very explanatory, often repeating points.
– Most likely geared towards a lower demographic (such as laborers), because of the repetition and explanatory tone.
– To show that Capitalism cheapens the worth of the lower-class worker, by forcing them to produce more and better products with no regard for themselves.
-Laborers are being alienated by their work, and are becoming more barbaric because of this.