Civ IV Modding, step by step

The worksheet walks you through step of a creating a historical scenario in Civ IV.  It starts with the capabilities provided by the World Builder GUI interface then moves into editing XML files to create new civilizations and technologies.  It finishes with a brief introduction to python generated events.

The ini file is a config file for the mod you’re going to create, and the Age of Conquest zip contains the example mod I created for a course.



Age Of Conquest

Willoughby Workshops

We had our annual “Willoughby Week” of workshops for a small group of faculty.  Notes from each of the sessions are below.

Sony Readers

This semester we lent Sony Readers to a senior seminar in German to see if students would find them useful.  It was a small class of only 7 students.  In addition to the size, we chose them because the professor had mentioned to me that they seemed to be having trouble understanding the readings despite the fact that they were in the senior seminar and had all studied abroad.  It sounded like a good use of the e-readers and the built-in dictionaries.

Last week, I went to talk to the students and hand out very brief surveys.  The responses varied, but were generally apathetic.  Note taking was more difficult, so most preferred the physical texts.  I asked about the dictionaries, and while all said they saw and knew how to use them, they didn’t see any need.  Having been abroad so long, they explained, they gathered the meaning of the word from context.  This of course belies what their professor had told me about their reading, but I would have been skeptical regardless.  I’m pretty sure my reading level in German is well above the average student in the undergraduate course, and I appreciate having the dictionary immensely.  Even when the context allows me to either recall or understand an unfamiliar word, checking the official definition helps me refresh and hopefully cement the word in my consciousness.

Otherwise, the only other point on which they were in general agreement was cost.  If the savings that came from downloading books for free from the public domain outweighed the cost of an eReader, they would consider purchasing it on their own.

I plan on trying again in the fall, probably with a lower lever class.  An introductory literature course may be better since students face a rather large jump in reading from the last language course.  Hopefully their need for additional vocabulary will be a nice fit with the dictionaries, and I’ll have to consider suggesting strategies for note taking as well.

Visualizations and Art

I’ve been seeing a lot of interest and examples of data visualization coming via the blogosphere.    Stanford has released Data Wrangler in alpha, open source Gephi is in beta, and Google is not allowing users to upload their own data to their visualization tool.

It’s also interesting to see the artistic bent of many of the popular visualizations.  Check out the comments below the Facebook visualization, for example.  There are also entire sites with a definite artistic bent to the data visualizations.  Two of my favorite are and

For us, this seems like a great potential cross disciplinary project for students in sciences or courses with a stats component to work with art students in order to make a visual argument.   I know we already have a large number of science classes who make posters each semester as part of their presentation.   Art is a little trickier since we don’t have a graphics design course.  While the digital photography students certainly have applicable skills and knowledge, it’s hard to imagine a final project that would fit into their course.

Games – Horizon Report 2011

I’ll be co-presenting the introduction of the gaming portion of the Horizon Report at ELI 2011 with Libby Evans from UNC.  I’m posting the notes here so everyone will have access to the links of examples.  I’m sure I’ll update this again before Monday.

I’m just going to run through a quick series of examples of games used or created in education.  These don’t even include those mentioned in the Horizon Report, and I’ll have a link at the end to my notes that includes these games and many others, so don’t worry about catching links as long as you get the last one.

  1. Games as sims – One of the great educational benefits games and simulations have is to demonstrate in a practical manner a problem with a multitude of variables.  Players need to first demonstrate an understanding of the complexity of the problem before they can advance.  We see many of examples of these in business/economics and with environmental simulations, particularly global warming.
    1. Global Warming Interactive
      1. (nice about this one is model is based on a dissertation that’s available, so can critique/analyze underlying assumptions.  Fiddaman%20Dissertation%20Climate%20FREE.PDF)
  2. Persuasive Games  (maybe a slide of the book Persuasive-Games)
    1. Games are especially effective at promoting understanding and empathy by placing the player in a situation in which they are unaccustomed.  Ian Bogost has categorized many of these types of games as “Persuasive Games”.  They can be designed to express a political view, desire for social change, or promote a charity.  Great for introducing a class to current events, especially those not well covered in the new.
    2. Alice and Kev – Student game designer Robin Burkinshaw set up characters in Sim 3 without money or a home then shared their stories from the game.  Also a great example of games, even single person games are social and use social media to connect games, in this case, blogging.
      1. (slide)
    3. Darfur is Dying – NGOs are using persuasive games to spread their message.   One of the earlier and more successful games was Darfur is Dying
      1. (slide)
    4. Haiti Earthquake  – A more recent example is “Inside the Haiti Earthquake” which includes professional quality documentary footage.
      1. Inside the Haiti Earthquake – (slide)
    5. Great source for these types of examples:
      1. Games for Change – (slide)
  3. Games as crowdsourcing tools – People can perform better than computers with many puzzles, especially those involving space and patterns.  Scientists create games to help with their research.
    1. Phylo players help scientists research for genetic diseases
    2. Fold-It is simliar, though now it’s proteins.
  4. Alternate Reality Games – These games have the real world as their environment.  Clues or the story is usually distributed via the internet by a game master then players work together and play in the real world until the puzzle is solved or the story is complete.
    1. Evoke – how to save the world (the real one)
  5. Games as object for study themselves whether as art, digital story or as example of a concept
    1. “Portal” as assigned reading for a required freshman seminar at Wabash College, “Induring Questions”. Portal  is played and discussed along with passages from  Erving Goffman’s Presentation of Self
  6. Games as creation tools – We tend to think of games as being something that comes pre-packaged and played.  More and more games, however, are being used as a creative resource to alter the game itself or to create a new medium.   In order to extend shelf life, many publishers (think LittleBigPlanet, Sims, Civiliation) now include tools to make it easier for players to create and modify within the game.
    1. Machinima – creating movies using video from a game.
      1. Skits in foreign languages – Sims comes with camera icon, just click and saves action from game as an avi file.  Subtitles and audio can be added via IMovie or any other video editing software
        1. (slide)
    2. Modding – slight more adventurous
      1. Civ IV Mod  – Both Civ IV and now Civ V come with tools to modify any variable in the game including maps, technologies, governments, social policies and populations to create historial scenarios.  This mod was created for a class at Dickinson College for students to play the role of Montezuma or Cortes.  Discussion focused around the importance of variables not included within the game.
        1. (slide)
      2. Rome Total Realism – Mod and active community for altering Rome – Total War to be an accurate sim of the period.
        1. (slide)
    3. Platforms – the daring
      1. Inform 7 – Is a platform for creating text games (MUDs) aka Zork type games.  Keep in mind, even though it’s simplified programming, it’s still programming.  Creators layout spaces based on the direction and description then write “if then” statements based on what the player may type.  We had students create a scenario based on their research of life under a fascist regime of their choice.)
        1. (Show screen shot of the Baghdad game)
      2. Scirra – A free and open source platform for creating games.  While the user doesn’t need to know a programming language, the logic is the same.  Objects are created, then each user action (clicking etc) must correspond to an event (player moves forward, block changes color, etc).  Has the look and feel of visual basic.  The creation of the game itself is an intellectual undertaking.  Would make a for a fascinating intro to programming course.   Be sure to check the forum for starting tutorials.  Also keep in mind .99 is permanent beta, they’re skipping to 2.0 due to memory issues.
        1. (Have screen shot in  ppt)
      3. Venatio Creo – Simpler though also easier to use platform for creating games and developed by students from Ursinus
  7. Start Libby – other examples in education
    1. Econ 201 from UNC Greensboro is an example of a game that has been used as a course for several years. It was developed in-house.  It’s single-user.
      1. (See the trailer, read more information)
    2. The Moonbase Alpha isn’t used  in a course I’ve found, but it’s a good example of industry working with the government to develop an educational game. It’s multiuser and requires collaboration, according to the NASN blurb.
      1. (download the game)
      2. (NASA’s information page about the game)
    3. WoW is a commercial game that is generating a fair amount of interest regarding its educational aspects. It’s an example of using a game that’s already developed and re-purposing it for education.
      1. “Virtual Worlds, Real Leaders: Online games put the future of business leadership on display.”
      2. “Reflections on Play, Pedagogy, and World of Warcraft.”
      3. Dr. Steinkuehler – WoW for at risk students and other articles
    4. Finally, the MIT game suite looks terrific… except they’re just prototypes, so there’s no link to the games. The descriptions for each game are really well-done and can provide a guide for how to think about games and learning.
      1. (Index of prototypes, not available for download)
    General links and resources
    1. Horizon Report Delicious links on games –
    2. Notes from faculty workshop at Dickinson College for games –
    3. Bryan Alexander, Gaming in the Liberal Arts

Civ IV Mod – Europe and the Americas 1492

I created a mod a couple of years ago in Civ IV covering the world in 1492 and conquest of the Aztecs by Cortes for a course taught by Ed Webb on empires.  Overall, I was extremely happy with capabilities offered by games.  Virtually all of the variables within Civ IV regarding civics, technology, religion, demographics and foreign relations can be altered to create a historic scenario.  That being said, even a complicated game such as Civ IV is still a great simplification.  However, having students play the game then critique its short comings gave them a great opportunity for goal oriented research and critical analysis.  In this case, the center piece this analysis was the book, “The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other” by Tzvetan Todorov which emphasizes the importance of the “belief systems”, a variable not included in the mod.  The other principle factor was the role disease played in weakening the Aztec forces.

My only regret was that I didn’t have the students create the mod themselves.  When all was said and done, I’m pretty sure I learned the most about the both the Aztecs and Europe during the time period.  Everything from the relative size of the Iroquois, the collapse of the Mayan Empire, the lingering effect of the plague on European populations, and the cultural/religious within Europe and North Africa had to be researched.  The students were let off rather easily in comparison.

Anyone interested in playing the mod can download it here.  Keep in mind, that my mod was actually a modification of an existing mod.  Credits and resources are referenced in the ReadMe file.  Finally, for those interested in creating their own mods, we’ve published our notes on the modding Civ IV workshops during the NITLE sponsored conferencing on gaming at Dickinson College.  The introduction to modding is here while the hands on worksheet for creating your first mod is here.

Moving Huge Files to the Cloud

After reading Mike Richwalsky’s post on Yottaa and cloud computing, I started experimenting with Amazon’s cloud service and possible integration with the Mixxer site running on Drupal.  This post is a bit more technical than what I usually write here, but even if you’re not heavy techie, it can hopefully give you an idea that’s simple and useful enough that your techie types wouldn’t mind implementing it.

With the growth of video, storage and bandwidth have become major issues for many instructional technology departments.  For most, this means either video projects are uploaded to YouTube with their accompanying restrictions and quality or an expensive server and accompanying bandwidth need to be paid for by the college.  This is the demand side of the equation.

Amazon on the other hand has a great deal of supply when it comes to servers, storage and bandwidth.  This is due not just to their huge size, but also because their business depends on the ability to handle large and sudden bursts of traffic around the holidays.  A fact that came in handy when Wikileaks supporters tried and failed to take down their servers.

What this means for us is that we can upload large files, or large numbers of files, to servers scattered around the world for extremely low prices.  Basically one first uploads all the files to a “bucket” on Amazon’s S3 servers.  S3 is simple storage.  If all you need is downloadable files from one server, you can stop there.  Just make each file public on upload then distribute the url to whomever may need the files.   Here is the pricing.

If you want to do streaming and video, you have to take it one step further by signing up for Cloudfront, creating a distribution of the bucket, and distributing another url.  In addition to streaming, this also means your content will be available on a number of servers around the world which can have a huge impact on performance.  In addition to the S3, you would have to look at this price chart as well.

Amazon has no minimum fee, which works out well for many class projects.  We often have a relative few number of very large files that will only be seen by a relative few people, but all at the same time.  To accommodate these peaks requires a rather expensive server and can strain bandwidth at peak times.  You’ll have to have an idea of how many GBs you would be uploading and distributing per month to compare prices, but if like us you’re dealing mostly with short Quicktime videos it’s quite cheap.

The integration with Drupal is on hold for now.  For those interested, the CDN and CloudFront modules are the places to start.  I am going to wait until I upgrade to Drupal 7 when it looks the CDN module in particular will be able to serve all of my static files from Cloudfront without tinkering with the core Drupal php code, which I try to avoid.


Google has updated their storage options.  Also incredibly cheap, but pay attention to single file size limits.  One GB of video isn’t a lot.

eReaders in Foreign Languages

I’ve been keeping an eye on eReaders for quite some time.  It would seem to me that the digital format has enormous potential to make reading much easier and enjoyable for students of a foreign language.  Glosses have been around for a decade on html texts that show definitions of words from a foreign language dictionary.  It seems logical that an eReader would come with a built in dictionary, and if the eReader or book was from Germany, that the dictionary would be built-in.

I was so confident of this assumption, that I bought an eReader years ago for just such a purpose.  It’s still sitting on my desk, the eBookMan EBM 900.  It wasn’t a successful experiment.

eReaders have gone main stream now, though, and they’re backed by huge international corporations such as Apple, Amazon, Sony, and Barnes & Noble.  Unfortunately after some testing, I still haven’t been able to find one that has my very basic foreign language dictionary.

I started with Amazon. The Kindle has a built in English dictionary.  Unfortunately, that’s not the language I need.  It also isn’t possible to buy ebooks from European Amazon sites, so it was a quick dead end.

The Nook also has a built in English dictionary, and I was able to find famous older texts on their site, but I couldn’t find any of the top German best sellers.  It looks like the books they have are just famous works from the public domain that they’ve formatted especially for the Nook.

The Sony Reader can be set up for a specific locale.  By choosing Germany, the device automatically connected to a German bookstore site when I wanted to add books.  Finally I could at least access current novel in German, but I still couldn’t find a dictionary in German that integrate with the text.

The iPad could conceivably work, but I gave up after a day.  I had found the Ultralingua site which advertises dictionary for Windows, Mac, and other Apple devices.  It worked fine on Windows, so I thought I’d give it a try on the department iPad.  First problem was there’s no free trial for the iPad, so I have to buy it sight unseen.  I was mildly annoyed.  I then tried to add it to iPad via iTunes, but since another person in my department had used it first on her computer I was stuck again.  Once she returned, we tried from her office.  Unfortunately, she had apparently done it from her laptop at home.  I was beyond annoyed at this point, and clearly this was going to be a much bigger pain if I had planned on giving them to students as loaners for all or portions of a semester.  Besides, who wants to read an entire novel from a computer screen?  Granted, it’s easier to hold, but this isn’t a big step from just reading from a laptop.

Update: After Tweeting about this problem, I received a reply from Sony Electronics that the Sony Reader dictionary supports German, French and Spanish.  Fingers crossed.

Update #2: It works very well with German at least. It let me choose the dictionary when I first started. I chose a German to English dictionary. If you tap a word twice, it looks it up. Works with ePub and txt format, though not with pdfs. The note functions also work better than I though. Perfectly fine for underlining, though it’s hard for me at least to write legibly.

Latest Map of Social Networks

One of my favorite example’s of using Web 2.0 for language instruction has been the use by our Japanese department of the social networking site Mixi along with our Skype exchanges on the Mixxer to intergrate interaction with native speakers throughout their first three years of Japanese.  For a while, I had hoped to imitate this interaction in other languages by combining their language exchanges via Skype with written exchanges on other country specific social networks as well.  Unfortunately, it seems Facebook is well on its way to ruling the western hemisphere at least.  China, Japan, and Russia may keep their local networks for a while, but it’s going to hard to stop Facebook’s momentum.

Kill Screen Magazine (back to school issue)

I was interviewed for an article in Kill Screen Magazine, and my free copy arrived last week.   Calling it a magazine isn’t really fair, though that’s how they refer to it themselves.  It’s really much more substantial, more of a journal in terms of quality and amount content.  Unfortunately, there’s no online version, so I can’t add any links.

Some of the highlights for those interested in games for education:

Breaking Pangea describes the attempt to create an online virtual world for teaching Chinese.  This is the article in which I appeared including my experiences with WoW in my German 101 course.  In addition to the Pangea folks, there’s also a great deal taken from an interview with Purushotma, someone I’ve been following for quite some time.  He wrote his thesis one, drafts and all.  In this article, I thought he had some very insightful comments on the difficulty of integrating language games into the more traditional and structured classroom.  His solution seems to lean more towards the independent learner.

Renaissance Man covered the historical elements and inaccuracies in Assassin’s Creed II.  I had played Assassin’s Creed on the PS3 and had some interest from an Italian professor to have her students play the game in Italian.  I had envisioned it generating a discussion about the presentation of culture/history in modern media, perhaps by comparing the game with an older movie about the mafia.  After reading this article, though, I realized there’s more story related content about the renaissance era than I realized.  It’s accurate enough that students could instead focus on where the game deviates from history.

The Shadow and the Sorrow was probably my favorite article.   It describes the game “Shadow of the Colussus” which breaks the typical hero convention of most games.  While at first it seems to follow the pattern of defeating a series of opponents before finally meeting “the boss” and receiving the awards of a hero, the ending turns the tables on the player.  The violence wasn’t justified as he is forced to realize, and his own ending is tragic.  It’s scheduled for release on the PS3, and I’m curious to try it.  It’s a good example of morality questions built into video games.