Prof. Carol Ann Johnston

Month: April 2023

The Life of Merlin, Surnamed Ambrosius by Arthur Heywood: Part Two

Figuring out what possible path this book could have taken through time from when it was printed in 1641 was fascinating. The author of The Life Of Merlin was Thomas Heywood, an English playwright through the peak periods of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. He became part of the theatrical company The Admiral’s Men and claimed to have had a hand in writing at least 220 plays, of which 30 are known today. His plays typically focused upon a charming portrayal of the workings of London with realistic settings and citizen heroes and were very popular for his time. According to the ODNB entry on Heywood, King Charles I and his queen saw one of his plays, Love’s Mistress, three times in eight days. In addition to plays, Heywood wrote both poetry and prose. One of his more important pieces of prose was an account titled An Apology For Actors, written in 1612, that supported an actors’ place in history and defended their continued role in society. He died in 1641, in London– the exact circumstances and date of his death are a mystery, but he was buried on August 16th, 1641.  

The historical circumstances already paint an intriguing picture, especially when regarding the content of The Life of Merlin. We can conclude that Heywood was well-liked by royalty — meaning King Charles — and that he was staunchly in support of theater, which the Puritan government viewed as reprehensible. King Charles I was relatively liked in the beginning of his reign, but with his dissolution of the Parliament and the addition of reforms led by the Archbishop of Canterbury and backed by the Catholic queen, citizens rapidly became suspicious about his assertions of religion. In 1637, Charles I attempted to establish “a modified version of the English Book of Common Prayer that provoked a wave of riots in Scotland”, according to a Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide entry on English Civil Wars. Scotland quickly responded with the National Covenant, which in essence politely justified a revolt against Charles I for interfering. 1642 brought with it the English Civil War, in which King Charles I raised an army despite the Parliament’s wishes, meaning to deal with parts of Ireland rebelling, but then having the skirmishes quickly devolve into an outright war between Parliament and royalty. This was the year the theaters were shut down. 

So, Thomas Heywood, a prolific and extremely popular playwright who frequently had royalty attending his plays, writes a book that’s primarily about what he believes to be an accurate account of Merlin’s prophecies about kings from Brute to Charles I (that he’s writing with the benefit of hindsight). It’s meant to be flattering and to help the public find some kind of reassurance in their royalty in times of uncertainty, as when this was being published there was unrest and a general disdain regarding Charles I and his frequent abuses of power. The war breaks out a year later, and Heywood himself passes away in 1641 after the printing of his book. Coincidence (the man was in his late sixties) or not, the timing is certainly ironic. Charles I was beheaded eight years later in 1649.  

Heywood was of course not the only one involved in the creation of this book. From what I could tell, our printer “J. Okes” stood for John Oakes, and he was part of a line of printers. His father Nicholas Oakes was the one who preceded him, and the woman presumed to be his widow, Mary Oakes, succeeded him. Apparently, his printing business was founded by a man named Thomas Judson in 1586, and John Oakes was a printer from 1636-1644. He was partnered with his father for a good portion of that time. The other person included in the title page of The Life Of Merlin was a man named Jasper Emery, who was also a printer and a bookseller and is listed in “A transcript of the registers of the company of stationers of London” as having been publisher from 1629 to 1640 (the records I’ve seen seem to play fast and loose with the words printer and publisher). Jasper Emery had a small bookseller’s shop near St. Paul’s Church-yard, which is the address from the title page of The Life of Merlin. From what it looks like, the three of them had a well-maintained relationship– John and Nicholas Oakes collaborated with Jasper Emery on books together. Similarly, I believe Oakes and Emery worked together to assemble the book, which is why the title page makes note that Emery folded the pages. Overall, Emery assisted with at least a dozen or so publications, including Thomas Heywood’s play Loves Maistresse: Or, The Queen’s Masque. The rest of his publishing was mainly theological texts, which was the norm at the time. With the knowledge of Heywood’s popularity and the records of Emery and Oakes having worked together before, it’s not entirely out of the question that they’d be willing to print this book. The location it’s listed as printed at is St. Paul’s Churchyard, a general area around the Cathedral of Saint Paul and a hotspot for printers and booksellers.  

A map of St. Paul’s Churchyard. Image from the Map of Early London website.

Heywood was remembered far beyond his death. According to a journal article from Modern Language Notes titled “Thomas Heywood As A Critic” by Arthur Melville Clark, “extracts of it were used in The Rarities of Richmond by E.C.” in 1736 and “a condensed version of it appeared in 1755 as The Life of Merlin: Merlin’s Life And Prophecies” (Clark 141). He continued to be celebrated, particularly into the 19th century.  

The names written at various points throughout the book.

Unfortunately, I didn’t quite discover who Arthur and Hannah Bradley were, but perhaps as I continue looking into the circumstances around how this book got here it’ll be revealed. Further information about the book’s journey beyond printing as well as the book’s appearance will be detailed in an upcoming blog post.  

The mystery continues.




Works Cited 

Ainsworth, Sarah-Jayne et al. “St. Paul’s Churchyard.” The Map of Early Modern London, U of Victoria, 2022. Accessed 5 March 2023.  

“Civil War, English.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide, edited by Helicon, 2018. Credo Reference, Accessed 27 Apr. 2023. 

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopedia. “Thomas Heywood”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed 5 March 2023. 

Carlone, Dominic. “Bookselling at Paul’s Churchyard.” The Map of Early Modern London, U of Victoria. Accessed 5 March 2023.  

Clark, Arthur Melville. “Thomas Heywood As A Critic.” Modern Language Notes.  

Kathman, David. “Heywood, Thomas (c. 1573–1641), playwright and poet.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. 

/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-13190. Accessed 27 April 2023. 

Ohlmeyer, Jane H. “English Civil Wars”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed 5 March 2023. 

Plomer, Henry Robert. A Dictionary of the Booksellers and Printers who Were at Work in England, Scotland and Ireland. 

Stationers’ Company. A transcript of the registers of the company of stationers of London, Columbia University

Libraries, 2007. Electronic reproduction. 

Wright, Louis B. “Notes on Thomas Heywood’s Later Reputation.” The Review of English Studies, vol. 4, no. 14, 1928, pp. 135–44. JSTOR, Accessed 5 March 2023. 


Moby-Dick; or, the Whale: Origins

Moby Dick; or, the Whale, was adroitly handcrafted and produced by the Arion Press in 1979. This sensation of a book has a storied creation that reinvigorates the importance of the seemingly lost art of bookmaking in modern society. This book is unique because it was created by the last functional letterpress publisher in the country; its existence proves that the attention paid to the smallest details from a customized font to a hand-sewn headband has a substantial impact on how the work is perceived and valued.

First edition of Moby Dick, published by Harper & Brothers, New York, 1851

The author of this classic adventure novel has become a household name, meaning Herman Melville’s life and turbulent career has been meticulously cataloged by scholars and historians. Although his book is widely regarded as a masterwork of literature, Moby Dick was largely overlooked and even criticized during his lifetime (“How Melville’s Moby-Dick went from flop to literary masterpiece”, While Melville was alive, he sold a mere 3,000 copies of the book in the U.K. and America combined ( In fact, during Melville’s career his book Typee experienced more praise and popularity due to its easy thrill factor and comparative lightheartedness. His stories are recognized as dramatized accounts of his life and experiences with whaling  (“Herman Melville – the years of acclaim”, Starkly contrasting this past unpopularity, Moby Dick has become a cultural staple, in turn making the original edition and the modern Arion press edition valuable artifacts. The book’s success is marked by the hefty price tags — the first edition is on the market for $65,000, while the Arion press version is also valued in the thousands (“Moby Dick by Melville, First Edition”, Overall, Moby Dick is considered a classic today due to its shameless critique of 19th century conventions and its philosophical nature.

Moby Dick was brought to life by a modern-day printing press (also functioning as a publisher) that values awe-inspiring quality and a level of precision that is unmatched in any mass-produced book. The Arion Press, founded in 1974, is a San-Francisco based company that specializes in limited edition handmade works. Each book they produce is the product of a laborious process that begins with the careful planning and design and ends with the execution of the handcrafted binding. Today, Arion Press is regarded for its magnificent accomplishments with works such as Frankenstein, Sense & Sensibility, Don Quixote, Paradise Lost, and several more pieces of esteemed literature. Overall, Moby Dick was the sixth chronological production from this company out of nearly 125 books (“Catalogue”, Printing the colossal Moby Dick was an ambitious goal to pursue, especially considering that the dense text was entirely handset. 

Despite the printing industry being threatened by the modernization of the reading process, Arion Press defies these social obstacles by using the artful craft of bookmaking to pay homage to classic works of literature. The major names associated with this work can be found in the colophon — Andrew Hoyem, Charles Bigelow, Kris Holmes, and Barry Moser. Hoyem is the founder and most prominent force in the company. He was closely involved in the executive decisions for design and course of action for the book, and oversaw the mechanical tasks regarding the production of the text (“About Arion Press”, Moreover, the team of Bigelow and Holmes toiled over the design of the custom-made Leviathan typeface, attempting to bring the significance of the writing into a visual composition. For the bulk of the text, Bigelow and Holmes used the Goudy modern font, a variation of the Goudy open with the letters filled in (“Goudy Modern in use”, Moreover, Barry Moser was commissioned to complete 100 wood-engraved illustrations for the book, and he was challenged by restrictions to not portray pivotal action scenes or major characters (“A Note on the California Edition”). Notably, the book is a clear distinction from identically mass-produced works, in which excellence is sacrificed for a lower price.

Furthermore, the quality of this copy’s paper is unmatched by the thin and flimsy paper used in mechanically manufactured books. In the front matter of the book, “A Note on the California Edition” describes the paper as being handcrafted with faint whale-shaped watermarks on the corner of select pages; this distinct practice reflects the companies’ continued implementation of old-fashioned machinery. Furthermore, the models of 19th technology are used to create the text printed on the paper. A caster in Arion Press’s type foundry is used to create individual pieces of type that will be used to print the book (“About Arion Press”, Each individual piece of type was meticulously forged then laid out, employing methods and technologies that recreate the feel of valuable books made in earlier centuries. Full-time type casters are of extreme rarity today, yet they hold an essential position in establishing works of art that will be read and appreciated by many in subsequent years. The hand cast type lends character to the book, allowing every aspect of the product to be conscious and deliberate instead of mechanically reproduced without any thought. This handset and handmade ty

pe is not reproducible. Although it may be imitated, the Arion edition possesses qualities of type and execution that are exclusively theirs.

The exquisite quality of the book is carried into the process of binding, where an individual punches holes in the printed sections ofthe book before it is sewn. This job could very efficiently be done with a machine to several books in rapid succession, yet the use of a physical person reinforces the importance of the careful handcrafted nature of the book (“About Arion Press”, The book was bound in-house, hand sewn with extreme care. In the final step of the process, the cover is glued to the book and the finished product is put on sale.

Arion Press’s Moby Dick was presented to the public in the original Arion Edition, and later, the California Deluxe Edition. To the untrained eye, not much seems to be different between the two editions. However, the most jarring change is the material of the cover. The original book exhibits a blue Moroccan goatskin cover, whereas the California Deluxe displays a buckram cloth in the same oceanic blue. Furthermore, the newer edition was not printed from the handset type. Instead, the pages are high quality photographic replications of the originals. Ultimately, the changes demonstrate a shift creating a work that can be appreciated by the public, bringing the price down from $1,000 (a value that has appreciated since the initial sale) to significantly less (Davis, Moby Dick; published by University of California Press & Arion Press).

Overall, the book was successful in its mission of providing a work of art that reconciles the past of bookmaking and the modern desire for high quality books. It was magnificent learning about the process of making this book because I was able to fully grasp how a great variety of people contributed to the creation of this work of art. The font used for this paper, Goudy type, is loosely based on the tasteful and elegant font used for the Arion Press’s interpretation of Melville’s famous work. With this edition of the book, several elements combine to generate a physical object deserving of the title ‘perfection’.


Works Cited

“About Arion Press.” Arion Press,

“Catalogue.” Arion Press, The Arion Press,

Davis, J. “Moby Dick; Published by University of California Press & Arion Press.” The Whole Book Experience, 14 Sept. 2014, /moby-dick-published-by-university-of-california-press-arion-press/.

“Goudy Modern in Use.” Fonts in Use, goudy-modern.

History Hit, 3 Aug. 2022, publication-moby-dick/. “Moby Dick; or, the Whale.” AbeBooks, Harper & Brothers, New York, n=Moby%2BDick&x=48&y=18&yrh=1851&yrl=1851.

Irvine, Amy. “How Melville’s Moby-Dick Went from Flop to Literary Masterpiece.”

“Melville, Herman (1819–91),” The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea, edited by I. C. B Dear, and Peter Kemp, Oxford University Press, Inc., 2nd edition, 2016. Credo Reference, Accessed 13 Apr. 2023.

“The Years of Acclaim of Herman Melville.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,

The Rosebud: Origins

The Rosebud, an ornate gift book composed of various fables and tidbits of knowledge by various authors. Therefore, there is no author listed. Curiously, the authors of each work are not listed, and the only credit given is to the publisher, Leavitt and Allen. 

Leavitt and Allen was established in 1851 when George Ayers Leavitt took over his father, Jonathan Leavitt’s publishing firm after his death and took on a partner, John K. Allen. The company was located in Lower Manhattan, and first settled on Dey St, what would be called Broadway today. 

Leavitt and Allen were best known for publishing gift books, also called annuals, which were a common gift in the 19th century. They were often anthology style collections of short fiction, poetry, fables and essays, with ornate and beautiful decorative covers. Their purpose was essentially to be displayed and sometimes flipped through, but served as what we would contemporarily refer to as a “coffee table book.”  They were often used as a courtship gift. In particular, many gift books such as The Rosebud were purposely given names of flowers to signify their purpose as a romantic gesture, as “flower language” was a common courtship tactic during this time. Often gift books would come with a “presentation plate” that marked their purpose as a gift. 

The building Leavitt and Allen worked from also housed their printer and business partner, John Fowler Trow. Trow was born in 1810 in Andover, Massachusetts. He first came into the printing business due to working at his brother-in-law’s printing business, where he acquired knowledge of Greek and Hebrew type. He established a newspaper in April 1832 that only lasted until July 1832, after which he moved to New York City and worked under various publishers before establishing his own printing and bookbinding company, where he worked until his death. Trow is notable for being among the first to introduce electrotyping to the printing business, which was a means of creating duplicate plates for letterpress printing (Electrotyping | Britannica), as well as his publication of Trow’s New York City Directory. He worked with Jonathan Leavitt under the name Leavitt and Trow, and worked with Leavitt and Allen until 1849, after which the printer of the business remains unknown. (John Trow).

An interesting aspect of The Rosebud is that there is no editor listed. Many gift books by Leavitt and Allen published in the 1850’s were edited by Timothy Shay Arthur (Timothy Shay Arthur) but The Rose Bud has no listed editor despite having a very similar look and genre of other gift books from that particular time period. It is unclear if there was an editor at all, or multiple, as the only credit given in The Rosebud is to the publishers. 

Many gift books published by Leavitt and Allen are bound in Morocco leather, and ornately tooled and later machine embossed. With the invention of the stamping press in the 1830’s, ornate designs became even easier. Additionally, gold leaf was a common feature in the covers as well as gilt edges to both protect the pages and contribute to the ornamental look of the book. It is unlikely this is the case in this particular edition, but an interesting aspect of the binding is that it is possible that the green onlays included in the ornamentation of the cover may actually be poisonous, as arsenic is a key component in some emerald green pigments for  binding and onlays. There are some Leavitt and Allen published works that incorporate arsenic binding,  including two editions of The Rosebud  that do use arsenic green onlays, but it is unclear if the edition that I possess has these components(ARSENICAL BOOKS DATABASE – Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library). The color of the green onlays is similar to those used in the arsenic bindings, but it is unconfirmed. 

Works Cited

ARSENICAL BOOKS DATABASE – Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library. Accessed 5 Mar. 2023.

Electrotyping | Britannica. Accessed 1 Apr. 2023.

John Trow. Accessed 5 Mar. 2023.

Timothy Shay Arthur. Accessed 5 Mar. 2023.

Original Legacies in The Edinburgh New Dispensatory

The authorship of the Edinburgh New Dispensatory’s spans nearly a century. At first glance of the physical book, this would likely start with determining the identity of the “Duncan” described on the spine (Figure 1) Though the 1805 version’s title page lists Andrew Duncan Jr. as its author, further research reveals the multifaceted authorship of the book and positions Duncan Jr. as an editor and compiler of multiple works (Figure 2). As the name implies, the Dispensatory’s content originates in Edinburgh, and so the main contributors of William Lewis, Andrew Duncan Sr., and Andrew Duncan Jr. all hail from the city. More importantly, for the Dispensatory to earn the “new” title, there must be an original “old” dispensatory, in which William Lewis was the originator. Lewis worked as physician and chemist in his lifetime of 1708 to 1781. Though the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography does not say from which language, it does note that his translation of the 4th edition of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia in 1748 also appears in the New Dispensatory (Page “Lewis”). Among many other publications, he edited and reworked John Quincy’s Compleat English Dispensatory into what would be the first 1753 edition of The New Dispensatory (Page “Lewis”). Quincy’s English Dispensatory also has a long lineage of success; the book was on published in its 12th edition in 1749 before the New Dispensatory’s publication (“Compleat English”).

Figure 1-The spine of the dispensatory- who does “Duncan” refer to?

Figure 2- Title Page

Thus, the publication of the Dispensatory represents another step in a long line of medical and familial history. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists, the end of the 18th century coincided with a rise in consolidating the meaning of “’clinical’ medicine” and moving towards diagnosis based on senses rather than humors (Cunningham, “History”). The city of Edinburgh also represented another step in printing evolution. Over 14,000 imprints were published across the second half of the 17th century in Edinburgh, making it the 3rd largest publishing city overall in the anglophone book production sphere (Sher 34). Thus, even if we cannot pin the specific numbers for the Dispensatory’s printing, we can at least know the cultural and historical moments surrounding its production. Despite being the physically edited work of Andrew Duncan Sr., his father seemed to have contributed as much in spirit, if not specific words. This is acknowledged by the dedication page, as well (Figure 3). Duncan Sr. was a physician and professor for the University of Edinburgh, eventually writing several medical journals, one of which was apparently discontinued to make room for his son’s similar medical publication (Bettany “Elder”). Out of twelve children, only Duncan Jr. followed the path of the father in medicine (Bettany “Duncan”) After gaining experience working with his father in Annals of Medicine, Duncan Jr. published the first edition of the Edinburgh New Dispensatory in 1803 (Bettany “Duncan”). As the ODNB website notes, the Dispensatory gained renown enough to be published in French and German, as well as in the United States (Bettany “Duncan”). Thus, the Worcester Press edition published in 1805 can be surmised to be part of this publication expansion in the United States.

Figure 3- Dedication Page

The publication transition to American from Edinburgh also reflects a similar patrilineal dynamic as seen with the Duncans. In the title page, the 1805 edition states its origins in uppercase from the “press of Isaiah Thomas Jr” (Figure 2). Though stated as a “first Worcester edition,” the type below the press section also notes in lowercase that the book was sold to him by “Thomas and Andrews, Boston, and Thomas and Whipple, Newburyport” (Figure 1). After further research, Isaiah Thomas Jr. followed in his father’s footsteps, identical to the Duncans. Like Andrew Duncan Jr., much more information exists on their fathers instead of them themselves. When looking at the full life story of Isaiah Thomas Sr., the reasons why become clear.

Through his printing press powers, Thomas helped incite the Revolutionary War. In 1770, Thomas started publication of the Massachusetts Spy which was known for continual criticism of the government and favor towards revolution (Hixson “Thomas”). In 1773 he opened a printing house in Newbury Port where he also continued to publish a variety of works that were not specifically political (Hixson “Thomas”). However, the British takeover of Boston forced him to relocate once more to a location in Worcester in 1775, thus almost certainly being the place where the 1805 Dispensatory was published (Hixson “Thomas”). After the war and establishment of printing locations beyond Massachusetts, Thomas published and invested in over 400 titles in his printing houses, some of which included works by Rosseau, Paine, Noah Webster, and the oldest American edition of Mother Goose (Hixson “Thomas”). In short, Isaiah Thomas’ prolific printing acumen had impressive contributions to both the printing field and the development of United States as a nation. However, everything must end, and for Isaiah Thomas Sr.’s working life, this was his retirement at the start of the 19th century (Hixson “Thomas”). Starting in 1800, he started to transfer ownership of his printing businesses over to Isaiah Thomas Jr. (Knoles “Isaiah”). Thus, the Dispensatory’s publication situates itself in multiple scientific, political, and personally significant historical events.

Evidence of the Dispensatory’s success and legacy can still be seen today from the copies of this over two-hundred-year-old book still in existence. When examining the World Cat site, the Dispensatory has at least 69 copies in the United States in various editions (“Dispensatory”). The WorldCat does not have the Dickinson edition registered, which also implies there may be many yet still unregistered. Appropriately, they are mainly housed in college medical libraries, such as the Yale, Holy Cross, and Harvard medical libraries. The Dispensatory also appears in preservation organizations like the Connecticut Historical Society in Hartford. These copies mainly are housed along the East Coast United States with a specific concentration in the Northeast, though copies cover as far as California and Texas. The farthest copy from Carlisle, Pennsylvania rests in Wellcome Library in London, though another edition (“Dispensatory”). The 1805 edition appears in 44 libraries according to Worldcat, also indicating popularity. Despite being published in Worcester, at least one 1805 edition traveled as far as the Canadian city of Alberta (“Dispensatory”). To have journeyed so far from the original publication in Boston signals this book to have at least moderate success and import. The fact the there are many editions also implies a demand to keep printing and updating, further insinuating at least moderate success. Overall, the Edinburgh New Dispensatory has a sizable material, political, and culture success as evidenced by the surviving copies and historical legacies and associations gone into creation.



Works Cited:

Bettany, G.T. “Duncan, Andrew (1773–1832), physician and expert in forensic science.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 23 September 2004, https://www-oxforddnb-       9780198614128-e-8213?rskey=aqJK4e&result=3. Accessed 4 March 2023.

Bettany, G.T. “Duncan, Andrew, the elder (1744–1828), physician.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 11 August 2022,            9780198614128-e-8212?rskey=ZYJaVh&result=2. Accessed 4 March 2023.

Cunningham, Andrew. “The History of Medicine.” The Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists, edited by David Millar, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 2002. Credo Reference,                                                                                                                                             dicscientist/the_history_of_medicine/0?institutionId=2613. Accessed 10 Apr. 2023.

Hixson, Richard F. “Thomas, Isaiah.” American National Biography, February 2000, https://www-anb- Accessed 4 March 2023.

Knoles, Thomas. “Thomas, Isaiah (1749 1831).” The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment, edited by Mark Spencer, Bloomsbury, 1st edition, 2014. Credo Reference, Accessed 08 April 2023.

Page, Frederick G. “Lewis, William.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 30 May 2013, div1-d790392e383. Accessed 4 March 2023.

“Pharmacopœia officinalis & extemporanea: or, a compleat English dispensatory, in two parts, theoretic and practical. Part I. In two books. Book I. Of the Definition, Subject, General  Intentions, Media, Instruments, and Operations of Pharmacy. Book II. Of the Distribution into proper Classes, General Nature, and Medicinal Virtues, &c. of Simples. Part II. In  five books. Book I. Of the Preparation of Simples. Book II. Of Saline Preparations. Book   III. Of Metalline Preparations. Book. IV. Of Officinal Compositions; containing all the      Prescriptions of the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias, according to the last Alterations thereof ; together with those of other Authors, and the present Practice, which claim any Notice. Book V. Of Extemporaneous Prescriptions; which are therein disposed              into proper Classes according to their several Curative Intentions. By John Quincy, M.D.” World Cat, Accessed 4 March 2023.

“The Edinburgh new dispensatory: containing, I. The elements of pharmaceutical chemistry. II.  The materia medica … III. The pharmaceutical preparations and compositions; including complete and accurate translations of the octavo edition of the London pharmacopoeia, published in 1791; Dublin pharmacopoeia, published in 1794; and of the new edition of the Edinburgh pharmacopoeia, published in 1803. Illustrated and explained in the language and according to the principles of modern chemistry. With many new and      useful tables. And several copperplates, explaining the new system of chemical characters, and representing the most useful pharmaceutical apparatus.” WorldCat, Accessed 4 March 2023.

Sher, Richard B. “Corporatism and Consensus in the Late Eighteenth-Century Book Trade: The Edinburgh Booksellers’ Society in Comparative Perspective.” Book History, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 32–93. JSTOR, Accessed 11 Apr. 2023.

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