The numbers that underlie string art are not bound by language barriers because they are universally understood. For example, the 11-needle image at left looks the same in all languages. If we change counting rule P from 4 to 5 the 11-petal flower image on the right appears. Both continuously-drawn images share the same 33 = n·S = 11·3 subdivision endpoints; the difference is simply the order in which they are used.

Despite this universality, it is helpful to have basic information in multiple languages, provided by native speakers of that language. Luckily, Dickinson College has students from a number of countries, and they are helping me create this page.

Here is a link to YouTube videos I have created that introduce various concepts in ESA. The first four provide the basics in English. My hope is that over time, I will be able to post similar videos in a number of other languages.

If you think you might be interested in helping with this initiative, flick me an email ( and I can provide more details including Word and PowerPoint files that will help you create a video in your own language. All posted videos will gratefully acknowledge the creator of the video.