JBE Style Guide
- American (i.e., not British) English.
- New paragraphs are indented (except for the first paragraph of a new section, which is aligned left).
- Headings are boldfaced.
- Main headings have capital letters for significant words; are in roman font; one line before and after.
- Subheadings have initial capital only; are in italic font; one line before and after.
- “That” to be used only in restrictive relative clauses; “which” to be used in descriptive relative clauses.
- “Since” to be used only with reference to a passed period of time, not as a synonym of “because”; “while” to be changed to “although” when not used specifically in terms of a time relationship.
- Use serial commas (i.e., place a comma before “and” in a list; e.g., “red, white, and blue”).
- Periods and commas go inside quotation marks; semicolons and colons go outside quotation marks.
- Use commas after “e.g.” and “i.e.”
- Use unspaced em-dashes (—). Most word-processors will convert double-hyphens to em-dashes automatically.
- Use apostrophe + s for possessives of words ending in –s, e.g., “Edwards’s view.”
- Use only double quotation marks (except for quotes within a quote, which use single marks).
- Quotations of 40 words and more are to be displayed (indented, with one line before and one line after), with no quotation marks; source given at end of a quotation is in roman, and follows closing punctuation.
- Text within quotations must remain as published; it should not be standardized (this includes capitalization and standardization of transliterations).
- Spaced ellipsis, without brackets; four spaced dots when including a full stop.
- Space between initials in a name (e.g., J. P. Smith).
- Numbers one to ninety-nine are written out; numbers 100 and over are in numerals (but “36 percent”).
- Approximations in place of numbers are written out (e.g., “around eight hundred”).
- Change fractions to decimals where possible.
- No elision of numbers: pages 232-238, not 232-38; 1980-1984, not 1980-84.
- “Chapter one,” “chapter two,” etc., not “chap. 1” or “chapter one” or “chapter 1.”
- Footnotes, when used, should contain only substantive information. Bibliographic citation should be in-line, in Modern Language Association style (see below for examples).
- Note indicators are superscripted arabic numbers without parentheses.
- If the note comes at the end of a quote, the note indicator comes after the closing quote marks: “. . . the largest community in the world today.”1
Bibliographic reference in text
- In MLA form, citations of sources are separated from text by a space, with author’s last name and page number within parentheses. Example: (Cozort 43). If the author’s name is obvious from the text, cite only the page number. If more than one work by an author is included in the list of references, a keyword is also inserted. Example: (Cozort Highest 43). There are no commas.
- 1500s, not 1500’s.
- “1960s,” not “sixties.”
- “Seventh century,” not “Seventh Century” or “7th Century.”
- 650 B.C., A.D. 1998, 621 B.C.E. (B.C.E. and C.E. are preferred to B.C. and A.D.)
- March 5, not March 5th.
- Ranges: 1950-1959 (with a hyphen, not a dash).
- Book titles are italicized; article titles are enclosed in quotation marks.
- Conference titles such as “Buddhism and Human Rights” are in quotation marks, not italics.
- Titles like “assistant book editor” are not capitalized (unless used in a heading).
- Transliterations in the title and headings should be the same as in the body of the article.
- For a numbered list within a sentence, use numbers enclosed in parentheses and end each item with a semi-colon. For example, “The Four Sublime Abodes are: (1) love; (2) compassion; (3) empathetic joy; and (4) equanimity.”
- Numbered lists and notes in text: 1….2…., etc. (number followed by period; no parentheses or superscripts).
Figures and Charts
- For figures mentioned in text: figure 1; figure 2 etc.
- For figure caption : fig. 1 ; fig. 2 etc.
- Charts are in tables and do not use tabs.
- Units of measurement should be unambiguous; if using dollars, it must be clear to which country’s dollars the article is referring.
- Do not use bold anywhere in the document except for headings.
- Use italics for emphasis rather than bold or underscoring
Foreign Language Issues
- All technical terms in Buddhist languages, except proper names, are italicized except for those that have become English words. A list of common terms may be found below. Please note carefully which ones are and are not italicized.
- Use a font that contains characters with the necessary diacritical marks. We recommend Gentium Plus, which can be downloaded free from (http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=gentium_download#c6982247); it is suggested that you download and install this font and use this template (Template for JBE articles) to prepare your article.
Examples of Bibliographic Entries (MLA Style, 8th Edition)
Prebish, Charles. Luminous Passage: The Practice and Study of Buddhism in America. University of California Press, 1999.
Hammond, Phillip and David Machacek. Soka Gakkai in America: Accommodation and Conversion. Oxford University Press, 1999.
Keown, Damien (ed.). Contemporary Buddhist Ethics. Curzon Press, 2000.
Keown, Damien and Charles Prebish (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge Curzon Press, 2006.
Chapter in a book:
Keown, Damien. “Are There Human Rights in Buddhism?” In Buddhism and Human Rights, edited by Damien Keown, Charles Prebish, and Wayne Husted, 15-41. Curzon Press, 1998.
Prebish, Charles. “Two Buddhisms Reconsidered,” Buddhist Studies Review, Vol. 10, no. 2, 1993, pp. 187-206.
Keown, Damien and Shakyamuni Buddha. “Ethics and Salsa,” Journal of Buddhist Ethics, Vol. 12, 2004, pp. 132-301.
Electrobuddha, Cyber. “Buddhism on the Internet,” Buddhist Journal of Cyberspace 1 (2002). Online. Available HTTP: <http://www.bjc.com/Eelectrobuddha.html> (accessed 4 November 2011).
(For additional queries and style questions, please take a look at the current volume of the Journal.)
a priori (no italics)
ancien régime, the (no italics)
Asian American (family)
best-known (when attributive)
Bhagavad Gita (italics)
bhikṣu (lower-case ‘b’ unless part of a name)
big bang theory
Bodhisattva (if referring to Siddhartha Gautama prior to enlightenment, or a particular bodhisattva, such as the Bodhisattva Tara; otherwise not capitalized)
ca. – change to “circa” or “around” where possible
call for papers
Dark Ages, the
de facto (no italics)
e.g. – change to “for example” where possible
the East, Eastern
Eightfold Path, the
etc. – change to “and so forth” where possible
fall (the season)
fin de siècle (no italics)
First Noble Truth
Five Precepts, the
Four Noble Truths, the
Golden Rule, the
i.e. – change to “that is” where possible
ibid. (no italics)
Journal of Buddhist Ethics (italics)
Journal of Global Buddhism (italics)
laissez-faire (no italics)
matter-of-fact (when attributive)
Middle Ages, the
middle-class voters; the middle class
president (of the United States); President Obama
rabbi, the; Rabbi Salzman
saṅgha (Pāli)/ saṃgha (Sanskrit); capitalized if referred to as one of the Three Jewels.
Sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapa
spring (the season)
sturm und drang (no italics)
sūtra/sūtta (no italics); Lotus Sūtra
Three Jewels, the
Three Treasures, the
three-quarters (of a mile)
toward (not towards)
tropic of Cancer
viz. – change to “namely” where possible
well-known (when attributive)
the West, Western
World Wide Web