European Common Market and The Free Trade Area

Author- United States Department of State press statement on the European Common Market and the Free Trade Area, January 15,1957, the US government writes back offering support for these negotiations because it unifies different countries and improves their economy.

Context-Belgium, France, the German Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands are all joining together to establish a European market where there are no barriers during trade. This is in order to keep peace between these six countries. It will help each of these six countries prosper and raise their economies. Tariffs would be put on all foreign goods being export to those not in the market.

Language- The document was designed for those who are educated and it is directed towards the people. It is also spoken in a way that is understandable as well as informative. It was showed to the U.S to gain their approval. It was a convincing document that showed all the pros of this arrangement.

Audience- The document informs the people about the situation, the audience who is reading this would most likely be those who are educated and interested in the economy as well as politics

Intent- the intent of this press statement is to get the people aware of how this could help their economy and help build their economy back up after the war. The author was trying to bring the people and the countries together.

Message- It was to convince the people that this change would be beneficial to all involved. They have gained the U.S approval and are able to form a market representing all of the six countries. This treaty helps prevent the spread of communism.

Hitler and Nazism

Hitler was an Austrian born, German politician (Wikipedia). He was alive from 1889-1945. He was the leader of the Nazi party in Germany from 1934-1945. Hitler despised the idea of Capitalism or any other form of leadership besides Nationalism. He was a dictator in World War II and the cause of the Holocaust.

Throughout the 25 Points 1920: An Early Nazi Program and Adolf Hitler’s speech of April 12, 1921 hatred toward the Jews drastically increases. Number four of the 25 points states that “ no Jew can be a member of the race”. In Hitler’s speech he blames the Jews for the debt in which all of Germany has recently come into. He states that the Jews have money while everyone else is suffering. He says that the Jews do not work for what they earn and hold positions that others deserve. This convinces the poor in the society as well as the working class to unite against the Jews. This was the start to Nazism. Hitler was not only against democracy but he was also against socialism and capitalism. He claimed that Capitalism was formed and run by the Jews in Russia, he said that this would be their downfall.

Hitler creates 25 points in 1920 for what he wishes people to follow. In Hitler’s first two points, he asks for equality with other nations, yet he does not know what equality is himself. In the next point, he asks for the other nations to rid the treaty of Versailles and to relive Germany from its many debts. He demands for more territory for their “ surplus population”. He also states the definition of the German race, excluding any Jews. Hitler states that only citizens may hold jobs or positions in society. Further immigration of any sort is to be prevented and all immigrants residing in Germany are to leave. He says that all citizens must have equal rights and obligations. All wages must be earned by labor or work. While there are many other points listed in Hitler’s wishes of the German Reich, all of them either demoralize Jews or exclude them from society.


Revolutionaries are those who stand up for what they believe in and fight for their political rights and beliefs. They must be held to complete secrecy. This secrecy allows for further planning and for ideas to progress without prevention. While reading What is to be Done, 1902 by Lenin, He establishes that revolutionaries are an essential part of forming the revolution. During this, he greatly discusses how he disagrees in every aspect with the economist’s perspective. Lenin believed that there are a list of standards that must be met in order for there to be a true revolution. These rules and standards enforce structure as well as leaders guidance. These leaders will help set the rules and regulations. Lenin believed that these revolutionaries should be giving their full attention to this revolution. This revolution should be their profession. He believed in no distractions.Lenin wanted as many organizations as possible to get involved but not to confuse the idea of a revolution with other illegal activities such as readings that were not supposed to be read. Lenin explains that those who are not willing to put in the effort and fight for what they believe in are not revolutionaries.

Communist Manifesto-Karl Marx

Author: Karl Marx was 29 when he began writing the Communist Manifesto. He joined the Communist Federation in 1847. He was a leader with great power in the German Communist movement.

Context: Communism destroyed old beliefs, and replaced them with new ideas. Marx is convincing the audience that with Communism comes benefits like an improved economy, further development in railways, navigation and political power. He reminds the poor that if they do not give in they will have to suffer through oppression, higher taxes, and no freedom. He states the bourgeoisie “transformed personal worth into mere exchange value” (127), putting down those in a position of wealth.

Language: It is directed towards workers so sections are either made very understandable to all or directed at those in European power, which are more complicated to interpret.

Audience: Current Communists and the workers of the world, people who were unhappy with the current situation. It was also directed to those who were poor and repressed. It gave them a chance to rise up in society.

Intent: To get others to join the Communist part and to gain all European powers appreciation of Communism. Marx wanted to make communism known to all and convince others to join him.

Message: It is trying to convince those oppressed to not rebel but instead to embrace the idea of Communism. Marx states that if not followed, there will be a continuous difference in social classes.

Division of Labor

In An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, the author is pro Division of Labor. The author begins by giving a background of each chapter and reciting the powers of labor and produce. Throughout this excerpt, he goes into detail of the benefits of Division of Labor. One of these benefits include working together as a team, this allows people to help one another and complete more items than if working alone. Another benefit the author states is that a countries’ supply depends on its annual labor. Its annual labor is the only source of income. This passage discusses the vast improvements of labor and distribution. In this system, the poor are included, unlike an individual system where each is on their own. This allows for the opportunity for many to have a job and support their families rather than abandoning the old and young to fend for themselves.

The author also argues that when working in a separate environment, as farming, the expenses increase and production is less. The author states that by “making this one purpose his sole purpose in life, he is able to produce more than others who don’t have this one particular skill”. This enables those who work best at the skill to complete more than someone who does not have prior knowledge about the skill, allowing for speedy manufacturing.

The author describes those in a position above the workers as “philosophers, people who only observe work but do not partake in machinery”. The author considers this a governed society with inspirational leaders. This allows the workers to be convinced that they are getting the better hand of the deal. It is explained as accommodation and supply. The author finds Division of Labor to be a positive aspect of the work environment. It is a pyramid system with the workers at the bottom, with the least amount of say.

La Marseillaise and The Cult of the Supreme Being

When reading “La Marseillaise”, the French national anthem, I found it surprising that Rouget, who composed this anthem himself, refused to take the oath (Halsall,1997). The main focus of this anthem was to rise the people during the French revolution, the goal was to also convince them to stand up for what they believed in. It is to gather the people to go against their tyrant who is unjust. This is stated in the line “shall hateful tyrants, mischief breeding (Rouget,1792)”. This song was to inspire the army to continue on in triumph. This song explains the argument that they can either live in misery or stand up against those repressing them and state their beliefs. This document is a religious document.

In the Cult of the Supreme Being, a similar idea is stated. Robespierre (1758-94), was a leader during one of the most radical, violent stages in the revolution (Halsall, 1997). I thought it was interesting how Halsall pointed out that although this is the period of the reign of terror, it was also a time period where the government had a great deal of control. The people have seen torture, violence and have watched the king demolish a great deal of the human race. This is a time period where the people are in need of peace. Rather than uprising the people as the anthem “La marseillaise” did, it is directed towards the army. This statement is drastically against the idea of having a king, and states the negative affects of all kings rulings.