1) Weltanschauung offers a solution to all problems in existences by way of a comprehensive hypothesis and construction. That way, everything finds a place.
2) Religion is a negative influence on civilization, as it inhibits thought and exerts power over human emotions. Furthermore, religion is dismissed by Freud as outdated and ignorant.
3) Civilization progresses due to economic situations, and is comparable to an organic process. Evolution of civilization is brought on by the struggle for life of humans.… Read the rest here
1. Germany was forced to surrender much of the territory they gained during the war. They lost the territory that they gained from France and also had many other restrictions. They also had many restrictions put on their control of the Rhine, saying “Germany is forbidden to maintain or construct any fortifications” around the Rhine. They were forced to return all of their newly controlled territories.
2. Germany was forced to disassemble their armed forces. … Read the rest here
3 main points
1. All cultures and traditions have a limited lifespan and all will eventually fail and give rise to a new set of traditions. Spengler supported this observation by providing examples which occurred throughout history prior to the contemporary time frame in which he wrote.
2. The future of warfare lies with paramilitary forces and contractors.
3. The groups that would overtake the dominant world powers were those which were developing in the East (India, China, and the like), those which he believed were Caesars to the West’s Napoleons.… Read the rest here
Within this particular chapter, there was one aspect that stood out to me. I was surprised at the number of types of serfs that were discussed. Prior to taking this course, I had thought that a serf was a single type of individual, and there wasn’t any differentiation because they were collectively seen as the lowest within Russia society. In addition to the serfs that most people associate with the title, there were also industrial serfs, as well as household serfs.… Read the rest here
1. Territory– The following territories were taken away from Germany:
- Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)
- Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)
- Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)
- Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)
- West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
Germany must relinquish power over any overseas colonies to the League of Nations as well as any additional territory seized in the war not mentioned above.
2. Military– Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men and no tanks were allowed.… Read the rest here
Keynes compares the livelihood of Europe before and after the war. He boasts about how self-sufficient Europe was, with the population secured for itself with dedicated organization and steady income of supplies. He believes the disruption of this system has contributed to the decline in livelihood.
To follow his first point, Keynes warns the population of the lurking danger of the rapid decline in the standard of living that will leave people starved, as well as mentally and physically disabled.… Read the rest here
Something that stood out to me in this chapter was the quote by Sumner at the beginning of the reading. He states that serfdom lasted longer in Russia than in the West because “humanitarian and other ideas of the value of the individual spirit were little developed.” It is strange to attempt to reconcile that fact that Catherine the Great set up a Noble Wardship and a Bureau of Public Welfare for the peasants but that she was also the monarch responsible for entrenching serfdom the most. … Read the rest here
Serfdom lasted much longer in Russia than in other Western countries because of the economic disadvantages Russia faced. As a result of Peter the Great and the developments he made to the social and economic structures. However, there still seemed to be a huge separation between the nobility and wealthy upper class and the peasants. It seemed that during this time, the rich became richer and the poor became poorer, even clergy lost the status they once had.… Read the rest here
Author: The First Provisional Government was created by the Temporary Committee of the members of the State of Duma. The Committee proclaimed itself the official governing body of the Russian Empire.
Context: The Provisional Committee was formed in 1917, just as the February Revolution was beginning.
Language: The language of the document is concise and simple, representing the clear purpose of the Provisional Committee.
Audience: The Committee’s intended audience was the entirety of the Russian Empire as they sought to be recognized as Russia’s official governing body.… Read the rest here
Author: Nicholas Romanov II (Николай Александрович Романов) was the last Emperor of Russia. He also given the nickname Bloody Nicholas because of his violent tendencies. He ruled from 1894 to 1917 and saw the total collapse of his country from a world power into an absolute crisis. He abdicated his thrown after a humiliating defeat in a war against Japan and the February Revolution of 1917. The Romanov family was captured and executed along with the higher ranking servants in 1918.… Read the rest here